This is the institutional Repository of the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research in Braunschweig/Germany (HZI), the Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS), Saarbrücken/Germany, the TWINCORE Zentrum für Exprerimentelle und Klinische Infektionsforschung, Hannover/Germany,Helmholtz-Institut für RNA-basierte Infektionsforschung (HIRI), Würzburg/Germany, Braunschweig Integrated Centre for Systems biology (BRICS), Centre for Structural Systems Biology (CSSB) the Study Centre Hannover, Hannover/Germany and the Centre for Individualised Infection Medicine (CiiM).

 

  • Intrinsic and acquired cancer immunotherapy resistance

    Saleh, Reem; Sasidharan Nair, Varun; Toor, Salman M.; Elkord, Eyad; Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia; Cancer Research Center, Qatar Biomedical Research Institute (QBRI), Hamad Bin Khalifa University (HBKU), Qatar Foundation (QF), Doha, Qatar;Department of Experimental Immunology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Biomedical Research Center, School of Science, Engineering and Environment, University of Salford, Manchester, United Kingdom; College of Health and Life Sciences (CHLS), Hamad Bin Khalifa University (HBKU), Doha, Qatar;Natural and Medical Sciences Research Center, University of Nizwa, Nizwa, Oman (Elsevier, 2021-08-27)
    Cancer immunotherapies, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), have revolutionized the treatment of various cancers and have shown a great efficacy in inducing antitumor immunity. Cancer immunotherapy in the form of adoptive cell transfer (ACT) have also been developed to eradicate tumor cells in a specific and effective manner, and it includes the administration of autologous tumor-infiltrating T-cells (TILs), T-cell receptor (TCR)-modified T-cells, or genetically engineered chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-specific T-cells (CARTs) in cancer patients. Additionally, cancer vaccines and recombinant cytokines can be used as monotherapy or adjuvant therapy. Despite the success of immunotherapies in treating various solid tumors and hematologic malignancies, a significant number of patients do not benefit from these therapies and exhibit limited or no response. Some cancer patients do not respond to immunotherapies as a result of primary or intrinsic tumor resistance, while others respond to immunotherapies but develop resistance over time, referred to as adaptive or acquired tumor resistance. Tumor intrinsic- and extrinsic-mediated mechanisms, including genetic and epigenetic alterations, tumor-mutational loads, overexpression of co-inhibitory immune checkpoints, and elevated levels of suppressive immune cells and cytokines, can lead to a compromised antitumor immunity favoring tumorigenesis and cancer progression. This chapter outlines mechanisms of intrinsic tumor resistance and the emergence of acquired tumor resistance to cancer immunotherapies. Moreover, this chapter describes combined cancer immunotherapies, which may offer a great therapeutic potential to overcome tumor resistance against therapy and improve clinical outcomes in cancer patients. +é(c) 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
  • Alienimonas californiensis gen. nov. sp. nov., a novel Planctomycete isolated from the kelp forest in Monterey Bay.

    Boersma, Alje S; Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Wiegand, Sandra; Rast, Patrick; Peeters, Stijn H; Mesman, Rob J; Heuer, Anja; Boedeker, Christian; Jetten, Mike S M; Rohde, Manfred; et al. (2019-12-04)
    Planctomycetes are environmentally and biotechnologically important bacteria and are often found in association with nutrient-rich (marine) surfaces. To allow a more comprehensive understanding of planctomycetal lifestyle and physiology we aimed at expanding the collection of axenic cultures with new isolates. Here, we describe the isolation and genomic and physiological characterisation of strain CA12T obtained from giant bladder kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) in Monterey Bay, California, USA. 16S rRNA gene sequence and whole genome-based phylogenetic analysis showed that strain CA12T clusters within the family Planctomycetaceae and that it has a high 16S rRNA sequence similarity (82.3%) to Planctomicrobium piriforme DSM 26348T. The genome of strain CA12T has a length of 5,475,215 bp and a G+C content of 70.1%. The highest growth rates were observed at 27 °C and pH 7.5. Using different microscopic methods, we could show that CA12T is able to divide by consecutive polar budding, without completing a characteristic planctomycetal lifestyle switch. Based on our data, we suggest that the isolated strain represents a novel species within a novel genus. We thus propose the name Alienimonas gen. nov. with Alienimonas californiensis sp. nov. as type species of the novel genus and CA12T as type strain of the novel species.
  • Description of three bacterial strains belonging to the new genus Novipirellula gen. nov., reclassificiation of Rhodopirellula rosea and Rhodopirellula caenicola and readjustment of the genus threshold of the phylogenetic marker rpoB for Planctomycetaceae.

    Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Wiegand, Sandra; Peeters, Stijn H; Jogler, Mareike; Boedeker, Christian; Heuer, Anja; Rast, Patrick; Jetten, Mike S M; Rohde, Manfred; Jogler, Christian (2019-12-19)
    Access to axenic cultures of Planctomycetes is crucial for further investigating their complex lifestyle, uncommon cell biology and primary and secondary metabolism. As a contribution to achieve this goal in the future, we here describe three strains belonging to the novel genus Novipirellula gen. nov. The strains were isolated from biotic and abiotic surfaces in the Baltic Sea and from the island Heligoland in the North Sea. Colony colours range from white to light pink. Cells are acorn-shaped and grew optimally at neutral pH and temperatures between 27 and 30 °C. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the isolated strains represent three novel species belonging to a new genus, Novipirellula gen. nov. Beyond that, our analysis suggests that Rhodopirellula rosea LHWP3T, Rhodopirellula caenicola YM26-125T and Rhodopirellula maiorica SM1 are also members of this novel genus. Splitting the current genus Rhodopirellula into a more strictly defined genus Rhodopirellula and Novipirellula also allowed readjusting the genus threshold value for the gene rpoB, encoding the RNA polymerase β-subunit, which is used as phylogenetic marker for Planctomycetales. A threshold range of 75.5-78% identity of the analysed partial rpoB sequence turned out to be reliable for differentiation of genera within the family Planctomycetaceae.
  • Three novel Rubripirellula species isolated from plastic particles submerged in the Baltic Sea and the estuary of the river Warnow in northern Germany.

    Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Jogler, Mareike; Wiegand, Sandra; Peeters, Stijn H; Heuer, Anja; Boedeker, Christian; Jetten, Mike S M; Rohde, Manfred; Jogler, Christian (2019-12-05)
    Planctomycetes are a unique and important phylum containing mostly aquatic bacteria, which are often associated with phototrophic surfaces. A complex lifestyle, their potential for the production of bioactive small molecules, their unusual cell biology and a large number of giant and hypothetical genes in their genomes make these microorganisms a fascinating topic for further research. Here, we characterise three novel planctomycetal strains isolated from polystyrene and polyethylene particles that were submerged in the German part of the Baltic Sea and the estuary of the river Warnow. All three strains showed typical planctomycetal traits such as division by polar budding and formation of rosettes. The isolated strains were mesophilic and neutrophilic chemoheterotrophs and reached generation times of 10-25 h during laboratory-scale cultivation. Taxonomically, the three strains belong to the genus Rubripirellula. Based on our analyses all three strains represent novel species, for which we propose the names Rubripirellula amarantea sp. nov., Rubripirellula tenax sp. nov. and Rubripirellula reticaptiva sp. nov. The here characterised strains Pla22T (DSM 102267T = LMG 29691T), Poly51T (DSM 103356T = VKM B-3438T) and Poly59T (DSM 103767T = LMG 29696T) are the respective type strains of these novel species. We also emend the description of the genus Rubripirellula.
  • Dual-function chromogenic screening-based CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system for actinomycetes.

    Wang, Qiushui; Xie, Feng; Tong, Yaojun; Habisch, Rebecca; Yang, Bowen; Zhang, Lixin; Müller, Rolf; Fu, Chengzhang (2019-12-02)

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