• Salt generates anti-inflammatory Th17 cells but amplifies their pathogenicity in pro-inflammatory cytokine microenvironments.

      Matthias, Julia; Heink, Sylvia; Picard, Felix Sr; Zeiträg, Julia; Kolz, Anna; Chao, Ying-Yin; Soll, Dominik; de Almeida, Gustavo P; Glasmacher, Elke; Jacobsen, Ilse D; et al. (American Society for Clinical Investigation, 2020-06-02)
      T helper cells integrate signals from their microenvironment to acquire distinct specialization programs for efficient clearance of diverse pathogens or for immunotolerance. Ionic signals have recently been demonstrated to affect T cell polarization and function. Sodium chloride (NaCl) was proposed to accumulate in peripheral tissues upon dietary intake and to promote autoimmunity via the Th17 cell axis. Here we demonstrate that high NaCl conditions induced a stable, pathogen-specific, anti-inflammatory Th17 cell fate in human T cells in vitro. The p38/MAPK pathway, involving NFAT5 and SGK1, regulated FoxP3 and interleukin (IL)-17A-expression in high-NaCl conditions. The NaCl-induced acquisition of an anti-inflammatory Th17 cell fate was confirmed in vivo in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model, which demonstrated strongly reduced disease symptoms upon transfer of T cells polarized in high NaCl conditions. However, NaCl was coopted to promote murine and human Th17 cell pathogenicity, if T cell stimulation occurred in a pro-inflammatory and TGF-β-low cytokine microenvironment. Taken together, our findings reveal a context-dependent, dichotomous role for NaCl in shaping Th17 cell pathogenicity. NaCl might therefore prove beneficial for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases in combination with cytokine-blocking drugs.
    • Vitamin C supports conversion of human γδ T cells into FOXP3-expressing regulatory cells by epigenetic regulation.

      Kouakanou, Léonce; Peters, Christian; Sun, Qiwei; Floess, Stefan; Bhat, Jaydeep; Huehn, Jochen; Kabelitz, Dieter; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Nature Publishing Group, 2020-04-16)
      Human γδ T cells are potent cytotoxic effector cells, produce a variety of cytokines, and can acquire regulatory activity. Induction of FOXP3, the key transcription factor of regulatory T cells (Treg), by TGF-β in human Vγ9 Vδ2 T cells has been previously reported. Vitamin C is an antioxidant and acts as multiplier of DNA hydroxymethylation. Here we have investigated the effect of the more stable phospho-modified Vitamin C (pVC) on TGF-β-induced FOXP3 expression and the resulting regulatory activity of highly purified human Vγ9 Vδ2 T cells. pVC significantly increased the TGF-β-induced FOXP3 expression and stability and also increased the suppressive activity of Vγ9 Vδ2 T cells. Importantly, pVC induced hypomethylation of the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR) in the FOXP3 gene. Genome-wide methylation analysis by Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing additionally revealed differentially methylated regions in several important genes upon pVC treatment of γδ T cells. While Vitamin C also enhances effector functions of Vγ9 Vδ2 T cells in the absence of TGF-β, our results demonstrate that pVC potently increases the suppressive activity and FOXP3 expression in TGF-β-treated Vγ9 Vδ2 T cells by epigenetic modification of the FOXP3 gene
    • Recirculating IL-1R2 Tregs fine-tune intrathymic Treg development under inflammatory conditions.

      Nikolouli, Eirini; Elfaki, Yassin; Herppich, Susanne; Schelmbauer, Carsten; Delacher, Michael; Falk, Christine; Mufazalov, Ilgiz A; Waisman, Ari; Feuerer, Markus; Huehn, Jochen; et al. (Springer Nature, 2020-01-27)
      The vast majority of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are generated in the thymus, and several factors, such as cytokines and unique thymic antigen-presenting cells, are known to contribute to the development of these thymus-derived Tregs (tTregs). Here, we report the existence of a specific subset of Foxp3+ Tregs within the thymus that is characterized by the expression of IL-1R2, which is a decoy receptor for the inflammatory cytokine IL-1. Detailed flow cytometric analysis of the thymocytes from Foxp3hCD2xRAG1GFP reporter mice revealed that the IL-1R2+ Tregs are mainly RAG1GFP- and CCR6+CCR7-, demonstrating that these Tregs are recirculating cells entering the thymus from the periphery and that they have an activated phenotype. In the spleen, the majority of IL-1R2+ Tregs express neuropilin-1 (Nrp-1) and Helios, suggesting a thymic origin for these Tregs. Interestingly, among all tissues studied, the highest frequency of IL-1R2+ Tregs was observed in the thymus, indicating preferential recruitment of this Treg subset by the thymus. Using fetal thymic organ cultures (FTOCs), we demonstrated that increased concentrations of exogenous IL-1β blocked intrathymic Treg development, resulting in a decreased frequency of CD25+Foxp3+ tTregs and an accumulation of CD25+Foxp3- Treg precursors. Interestingly, the addition of IL-1R2+ Tregs, but not IL-1R2- Tregs, to reaggregated thymic organ cultures (RTOCs) abrogated the IL-1β-mediated blockade, demonstrating that these recirculating IL-1R2+ Tregs can quench IL-1 signaling in the thymus and thereby maintain thymic Treg development even under inflammatory conditions.
    • The Transcription Factor MAZR/PATZ1 Regulates the Development of FOXP3 Regulatory T Cells.

      Andersen, Liisa; Gülich, Alexandra Franziska; Alteneder, Marlis; Preglej, Teresa; Orola, Maria Jonah; Dhele, Narendra; Stolz, Valentina; Schebesta, Alexandra; Hamminger, Patricia; Hladik, Anastasiya; et al. (Elsevier/Cell Press, 2019-12-24)
      Forkhead box protein P3+ (FOXP3+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) play a key role in maintaining tolerance and immune homeostasis. Here, we report that a T cell-specific deletion of the transcription factor MAZR (also known as PATZ1) leads to an increased frequency of Treg cells, while enforced MAZR expression impairs Treg cell differentiation. Further, MAZR expression levels are progressively downregulated during thymic Treg cell development and during in-vitro-induced human Treg cell differentiation, suggesting that MAZR protein levels are critical for controlling Treg cell development. However, MAZR-deficient Treg cells show only minor transcriptional changes ex vivo, indicating that MAZR is not essential for establishing the transcriptional program of peripheral Treg cells. Finally, the loss of MAZR reduces the clinical score in dextran-sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, suggesting that MAZR activity in T cells controls the extent of intestinal inflammation. Together, these data indicate that MAZR is part of a Treg cell-intrinsic transcriptional network that modulates Treg cell development.
    • Chimeric antigen receptor-induced BCL11B suppression propagates NK-like cell development.

      Maluski, Marcel; Ghosh, Arnab; Herbst, Jessica; Scholl, Vanessa; Baumann, Rolf; Huehn, Jochen; Geffers, Robert; Meyer, Johann; Maul, Holger; Eiz-Vesper, Britta; et al. (American Society for Clinical Investigation, 2019-12-02)
      The transcription factor B cell CLL/lymphoma 11B (BCL11B) is indispensable for T lineage development of lymphoid progenitors. Here, we show that chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) expression during early phases of ex vivo generation of lymphoid progenitors suppressed BCL11B, leading to suppression of T cell-associated gene expression and acquisition of NK cell-like properties. Upon adoptive transfer into hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, CAR-expressing lymphoid progenitors differentiated into CAR-induced killer (CARiK) cells that mediated potent antigen-directed antileukemic activity even across MHC barriers. CD28 and active immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs were critical for a functional CARiK phenotype. These results give important insights into differentiation of murine and human lymphoid progenitors driven by synthetic CAR transgene expression and encourage further evaluation of ex vivo-generated CARiK cells for targeted immunotherapy.
    • Guidelines for the use of flow cytometry and cell sorting in immunological studies (second edition).

      Cossarizza, Andrea; Chang, Hyun-Dong; Radbruch, Andreas; Acs, Andreas; Adam, Dieter; Adam-Klages, Sabine; Agace, William W; Aghaeepour, Nima; Akdis, Mübeccel; Allez, Matthieu; et al. (Wiley, 2019-10-01)
      These guidelines are a consensus work of a considerable number of members of the immunology and flow cytometry community. They provide the theory and key practical aspects of flow cytometry enabling immunologists to avoid the common errors that often undermine immunological data. Notably, there are comprehensive sections of all major immune cell types with helpful Tables detailing phenotypes in murine and human cells. The latest flow cytometry techniques and applications are also described, featuring examples of the data that can be generated and, importantly, how the data can be analysed. Furthermore, there are sections detailing tips, tricks and pitfalls to avoid, all written and peer-reviewed by leading experts in the field, making this an essential research companion.
    • miR-181a/b-1 controls thymic selection of Treg cells and tunes their suppressive capacity.

      Łyszkiewicz, Marcin; Winter, Samantha J; Witzlau, Katrin; Föhse, Lisa; Brownlie, Rebecca; Puchałka, Jacek; Verheyden, Nikita A; Kunze-Schumacher, Heike; Imelmann, Esther; Blume, Jonas; et al. (PLOS, 2019-03-01)
      The interdependence of selective cues during development of regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in the thymus and their suppressive function remains incompletely understood. Here, we analyzed this interdependence by taking advantage of highly dynamic changes in expression of microRNA 181 family members miR-181a-1 and miR-181b-1 (miR-181a/b-1) during late T-cell development with very high levels of expression during thymocyte selection, followed by massive down-regulation in the periphery. Loss of miR-181a/b-1 resulted in inefficient de novo generation of Treg cells in the thymus but simultaneously permitted homeostatic expansion in the periphery in the absence of competition. Modulation of T-cell receptor (TCR) signal strength in vivo indicated that miR-181a/b-1 controlled Treg-cell formation via establishing adequate signaling thresholds. Unexpectedly, miR-181a/b-1-deficient Treg cells displayed elevated suppressive capacity in vivo, in line with elevated levels of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated 4 (CTLA-4) protein, but not mRNA, in thymic and peripheral Treg cells. Therefore, we propose that intrathymic miR-181a/b-1 controls development of Treg cells and imposes a developmental legacy on their peripheral function.
    • Blimp1 Prevents Methylation of Foxp3 and Loss of Regulatory T Cell Identity at Sites of Inflammation.

      Garg, Garima; Muschaweckh, Andreas; Moreno, Helena; Vasanthakumar, Ajithkumar; Floess, Stefan; Lepennetier, Gildas; Oellinger, Rupert; Zhan, Yifan; Regen, Tommy; Hiltensperger, Michael; et al. (Elsevier (Cell Press), 2019-02-12)
      Summary Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells restrict immune pathology in inflamed tissues; however, an inflammatory environment presents a threat to Treg cell identity and function. Here, we establish a transcriptional signature of central nervous system (CNS) Treg cells that accumulate during experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) and identify a pathway that maintains Treg cell function and identity during severe inflammation. This pathway is dependent on the transcriptional regulator Blimp1, which prevents downregulation of Foxp3 expression and “toxic” gain-of-function of Treg cells in the inflamed CNS. Blimp1 negatively regulates IL-6- and STAT3-dependent Dnmt3a expression and function restraining methylation of Treg cell-specific conserved non-coding sequence 2 (CNS2) in the Foxp3 locus. Consequently, CNS2 is heavily methylated when Blimp1 is ablated, leading to a loss of Foxp3 expression and severe disease. These findings identify a Blimp1-dependent pathway that preserves Treg cell stability in inflamed non-lymphoid tissues.
    • Dynamic Imprinting of the Treg Cell-Specific Epigenetic Signature in Developing Thymic Regulatory T Cells.

      Herppich, Susanne; Toker, Aras; Pietzsch, Beate; Kitagawa, Yohko; Ohkura, Naganari; Miyao, Takahisa; Floess, Stefan; Hori, Shohei; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Huehn, Jochen; et al. (Frontiers, 2019-01-01)
      Regulatory T (Treg) cells mainly develop within the thymus and arise from CD25+Foxp3- (CD25+ TregP) or CD25-Foxp3+ (Foxp3+ TregP) Treg cell precursors resulting in Treg cells harboring distinct transcriptomic profiles and complementary T cell receptor repertoires. The stable and long-term expression of Foxp3 in Treg cells and their stable suppressive phenotype are controlled by the demethylation of Treg cell-specific epigenetic signature genes including an evolutionarily conserved CpG-rich element within the Foxp3 locus, the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR). Here we analyzed the dynamics of the imprinting of the Treg cell-specific epigenetic signature genes in thymic Treg cells. We could demonstrate that CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells show a progressive demethylation of most signature genes during maturation within the thymus. Interestingly, a partial demethylation of several Treg cell-specific epigenetic signature genes was already observed in Foxp3+ TregP but not in CD25+ TregP. Furthermore, Foxp3+ TregP were very transient in nature and arose at a more mature developmental stage when compared to CD25+ TregP. When the two Treg cell precursors were cultured in presence of IL-2, a factor known to be critical for thymic Treg cell development, we observed a major impact of IL-2 on the demethylation of the TSDR with a more pronounced effect on Foxp3+ TregP. Together, these results suggest that the establishment of the Treg cell-specific hypomethylation pattern is a continuous process throughout thymic Treg cell development and that the two known Treg cell precursors display distinct dynamics for the imprinting of the Treg cell-specific epigenetic signature genes.
    • Microbiome Dependent Regulation of Tregs and Th17 Cells in Mucosa.

      Pandiyan, Pushpa; Bhaskaran, Natarajan; Zou, Mangge; Schneider, Elizabeth; Jayaraman, Sangeetha; Huehn, Jochen; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Frontiers, 2019-01-01)
      Mammals co-exist with resident microbial ecosystem that is composed of an incredible number and diversity of bacteria, viruses and fungi. Owing to direct contact between resident microbes and mucosal surfaces, both parties are in continuous and complex interactions resulting in important functional consequences. These interactions govern immune homeostasis, host response to infection, vaccination and cancer, as well as predisposition to metabolic, inflammatory and neurological disorders. Here, we discuss recent studies on direct and indirect effects of resident microbiota on regulatory T cells (Tregs) and Th17 cells at the cellular and molecular level. We review mechanisms by which commensal microbes influence mucosa in the context of bioactive molecules derived from resident bacteria, immune senescence, chronic inflammation and cancer. Lastly, we discuss potential therapeutic applications of microbiota alterations and microbial derivatives, for improving resilience of mucosal immunity and combating immunopathology.
    • Generation of Foxp3CD25 Regulatory T-Cell Precursors Requires c-Rel and IκB.

      Schuster, Marc; Plaza-Sirvent, Carlos; Visekruna, Alexander; Huehn, Jochen; Schmitz, Ingo; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Frontiers, 2019-01-01)
      Next to the classical developmental route, in which first CD25 and subsequently Foxp3 are induced to generate thymic regulatory T (Treg) cells, an alternative route has been described. This alternative route is characterized by reciprocal induction of Foxp3 and CD25, with CD25 induction being required to rescue developing Treg cells from Foxp3-induced apoptosis. NF-κB has been demonstrated to be crucial for the development of thymic Treg cells via the classical route. However, its impact on the alternative route is poorly characterized. Using single and double deficient mice for key regulators of the classical route, c-Rel and IκBNS, we here demonstrate that NF-κB is essential for the generation of alternative CD25-Foxp3+ precursors, as well. Thus, c-Rel and IκBNS govern both routes of thymic Treg cell development.
    • Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis Modulates Regulatory T Cell Stability via Injection of Yersinia Outer Proteins in a Type III Secretion System-Dependent Manner.

      Elfiky, Ahmed; Bonifacius, Agnes; Pezoldt, Joern; Pasztoi, Maria; Chaoprasid, Paweena; Sadana, Pooja; El-Sherbeeny, Nagla; Hagras, Magda; Scrima, Andrea; Dersch, Petra; et al. (Akadémiai Kiadó, 2018-12-23)
      Adaptive immunity is essentially required to control acute infection with enteropathogenic
    • Transmaternal Helicobacter pylori exposure reduces allergic airway inflammation in offspring through regulatory T cells.

      Kyburz, Andreas; Fallegger, Angela; Zhang, Xiaozhou; Altobelli, Aleksandra; Artola-Boran, Mariela; Borbet, Timothy; Urban, Sabine; Paul, Petra; Münz, Christian; Floess, Stefan; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-09-19)
      Background: Transmaternal exposure to tobacco, microbes, nutrients, and other environmental factors shapes the fetal immune system through epigenetic processes. The gastric microbe Helicobacter pylori represents an ancestral constituent of the human microbiota that causes gastric disorders on the one hand and is inversely associated with allergies and chronic inflammatory conditions on the other. Objective: Here we investigate the consequences of transmaternal exposure to H pylori in utero and/or during lactation for susceptibility to viral and bacterial infection, predisposition to allergic airway inflammation, and development of immune cell populations in the lungs and lymphoid organs. Methods: We use experimental models of house dust mite- or ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation and influenza A virus or Citrobacter rodentium infection along with metagenomics analyses, multicolor flow cytometry, and bisulfite pyrosequencing, to study the effects of H pylori on allergy severity and immunologic and microbiome correlates thereof. Results: Perinatal exposure to H pylori extract or its immunomodulator vacuolating cytotoxin confers robust protective effects against allergic airway inflammation not only in first- but also second-generation offspring but does not increase susceptibility to viral or bacterial infection. Immune correlates of allergy protection include skewing of regulatory over effector T cells, expansion of regulatory T-cell subsets expressing CXCR3 or retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt, and demethylation of the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) locus. The composition and diversity of the gastrointestinal microbiota is measurably affected by perinatal H pylori exposure. Conclusion: We conclude that exposure to H pylori has consequences not only for the carrier but also for subsequent generations that can be exploited for interventional purposes. Keywords: Allergic airway inflammation; epigenetic regulation of allergy and asthma; immune regulation; immune tolerance; metagenomics; microbial interventions during pregnancy.
    • Intact interleukin-10 receptor signaling protects from hippocampal damage elicited by experimental neurotropic virus infection of SJL mice.

      Uhde, Ann-Kathrin; Ciurkiewicz, Malgorzata; Herder, Vanessa; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Hensel, Niko; Claus, Peter; Beckstette, Michael; Teich, René; Floess, Stefan; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; et al. (2018-04-17)
      Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection represents an experimental mouse model to study hippocampal damage induced by neurotropic viruses. IL-10 is a pleiotropic cytokine with profound anti-inflammatory properties, which critically controls immune homeostasis. In order to analyze IL-10R signaling following virus-induced polioencephalitis, SJL mice were intracerebrally infected with TMEV. RNA-based next generation sequencing revealed an up-regulation of Il10, Il10rα and further genes involved in IL-10 downstream signaling, including Jak1, Socs3 and Stat3 in the brain upon infection. Subsequent antibody-mediated blockade of IL-10R signaling led to enhanced hippocampal damage with neuronal loss and increased recruitment of CD3+ T cells, CD45R+ B cells and an up-regulation of Il1α mRNA. Increased expression of Tgfβ and Foxp3 as well as accumulation of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and arginase-1+ macrophages/microglia was detected in the hippocampus, representing a potential compensatory mechanism following disturbed IL-10R signaling. Additionally, an increased peripheral Chi3l3 expression was found in spleens of infected mice, which may embody reactive regulatory mechanisms for prevention of excessive immunopathology. The present study highlights the importance of IL-10R signaling for immune regulation and its neuroprotective properties in the context of an acute neurotropic virus infection.
    • The invasin D protein fromYersinia pseudotuberculosisselectively binds the Fab region of host antibodies and affects colonization of the intestine.

      Sadana, Pooja; Geyer, Rebecca; Pezoldt, Joern; Helmsing, Saskia; Huehn, Jochen; Hust, Michael; Dersch, Petra; Scrima, Andrea; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-03-13)
      Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-negative bacterium and zoonotic pathogen responsible for a wide range of diseases, ranging from mild diarrhea, enterocolitis, lymphatic adenitis to persistent local inflammation. TheY. pseudotuberculosisinvasin D (InvD) molecule belongs to the invasin (InvA)-type autotransporter proteins, but its structure and function remain unknown. In this study, we present the first crystal structure of InvD, analyzed its expression and function in a murine infection model, and identified its target molecule in the host. We found that InvD is induced at 37°C and expressed in vivo2-4 days after infection, indicating that InvD is a virulence factor. During infection, InvD was expressed in all parts of the intestinal tract, but not in deeper lymphoid tissues. The crystal structure of the C-terminal adhesion domain of InvD revealed a distinct Ig-related fold, that, apart from the canonical β-sheets, comprises various modifications of and insertions into the Ig-core structure. We identified the Fab fragment of host-derived IgG/IgA antibodies as the target of the adhesion domain. Phage display panning and flow cytometry data further revealed that InvD exhibits a preferential binding specificity toward antibodies with VH3/VK1 variable domains and that it is specifically recruited to a subset of B cells. This finding suggests that InvD modulates Ig functions in the intestine and affects direct interactions with a subset of cell surface-exposed B-cell receptors. In summary, our results provide extensive insights into the structure of InvD and its specific interaction with the target molecule in the host.
    • Expansion of functional personalized cells with specific transgene combinations.

      Lipps, Christoph; Klein, Franziska; Wahlicht, Tom; Seiffert, Virginia; Butueva, Milada; Zauers, Jeannette; Truschel, Theresa; Luckner, Martin; Köster, Mario; MacLeod, Roderick; et al. (Springer Nature, 2018-03-08)
      Fundamental research and drug development for personalized medicine necessitates cell cultures from defined genetic backgrounds. However, providing sufficient numbers of authentic cells from individuals poses a challenge. Here, we present a new strategy for rapid cell expansion that overcomes current limitations. Using a small gene library, we expanded primary cells from different tissues, donors, and species. Cell-type-specific regimens that allow the reproducible creation of cell lines were identified. In depth characterization of a series of endothelial and hepatocytic cell lines confirmed phenotypic stability and functionality. Applying this technology enables rapid, efficient, and reliable production of unlimited numbers of personalized cells. As such, these cell systems support mechanistic studies, epidemiological research, and tailored drug development.
    • Regulation of neuroinflammatory properties of glial cells by T cell effector molecules.

      Prajeeth, Chittappen K; Huehn, Jochen; Stangel, Martin; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-02)
    • IFN-γ Producing Th1 Cells Induce Different Transcriptional Profiles in Microglia and Astrocytes.

      Prajeeth, Chittappen K; Dittrich-Breiholz, Oliver; Talbot, Steven R; Robert, Philippe A; Huehn, Jochen; Stangel, Martin; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany.; BRICS, Braunschweiger Zentrum für Systembiologie, Rebenring 56,38106 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-01-01)
      Autoreactive T cells that infiltrate into the central nervous system (CNS) are believed to have a significant role in mediating the pathology of neuroinflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis. Their interaction with microglia and astrocytes in the CNS is crucial for the regulation of neuroinflammatory processes. Our previous work demonstrated that effectors secreted by Th1 and Th17 cells have different capacities to influence the phenotype and function of glial cells. We have shown that Th1-derived effectors altered the phenotype and function of both microglia and astrocytes whereas Th17-derived effectors induced direct effects only on astrocytes but not on microglia. Here we investigated if effector molecules associated with IFN-γ producing Th1 cells induced different gene expression profiles in microglia and astrocytes. We performed a microarray analysis of RNA isolated from microglia and astrocytes treated with medium and Th-derived culture supernatants and compared the gene expression data. By using the criteria of 2-fold change and a false discovery rate of 0.01 (corrected
    • Polymicrobial sepsis and non-specific immunization induce adaptive immunosuppression to a similar degree.

      Schmoeckel, Katrin; Mrochen, Daniel M; Hühn, Jochen; Pötschke, Christian; Bröker, Barbara M; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018)
      Sepsis is frequently complicated by a state of profound immunosuppression, in its extreme form known as immunoparalysis. We have studied the role of the adaptive immune system in the murine acute peritonitis model. To read out adaptive immunosuppression, we primed post-septic and control animals by immunization with the model antigen TNP-ovalbumin in alum, and measured the specific antibody-responses via ELISA and ELISpot assay as well as T-cell responses in a proliferation assay after restimulation. Specific antibody titers, antibody affinity and plasma cell counts in the bone marrow were reduced in post-septic animals. The antigen-induced splenic proliferation was also impaired. The adaptive immunosuppression was positively correlated with an overwhelming general antibody response to the septic insult. Remarkably, antigen "overload" by non-specific immunization induced a similar degree of adaptive immunosuppression in the absence of sepsis. In both settings, depletion of regulatory T cells before priming reversed some parameters of the immunosuppression. In conclusion, our data show that adaptive immunosuppression occurs independent of profound systemic inflammation and life-threatening illness.
    • Gut memories do not fade: epigenetic regulation of lasting gut homing receptor expression in CD4(+) memory T cells.

      Szilagyi, B A; Triebus, J; Kressler, C; de Almeida, M; Tierling, S; Durek, P; Mardahl, M; Szilagyi, A; Floess, S; Huehn, Jochen; et al. (2017-11)
      The concept of a "topographical memory" in lymphocytes implies a stable expression of homing receptors mediating trafficking of lymphocytes back to the tissue of initial activation. However, a significant plasticity of the gut-homing receptor α4β7 was found in CD8(+) T cells, questioning the concept. We now demonstrate that α4β7 expression in murine CD4(+) memory T cells is, in contrast, imprinted and remains stable in the absence of the inducing factor retinoic acid (RA) or other stimuli from mucosal environments. Repetitive rounds of RA treatment enhanced the stability of de novo induced α4β7. A novel enhancer element in the murine Itga4 locus was identified that showed, correlating to stability, selective DNA demethylation in mucosa-seeking memory cells and methylation-dependent transcriptional activity in a reporter gene assay. This implies that epigenetic mechanisms contribute to the stabilization of α4β7 expression. Analogous DNA methylation patterns could be observed in the human ITGA4 locus, suggesting that its epigenetic regulation is conserved between mice and men. These data prove that mucosa-specific homing mediated by α4β7 is imprinted in CD4(+) memory T cells, reinstating the validity of the concept of "topographical memory" for mucosal tissues, and imply a critical role of epigenetic mechanisms.