• E-N-cadherin heterodimers define novel adherens junctions connecting endoderm-derived cells.

      Straub, Beate K; Rickelt, Steffen; Zimbelmann, Ralf; Grund, Christine; Kuhn, Caecilia; Iken, Marcus; Ott, Michael; Schirmacher, Peter; Franke, Werner W (2011-11-28)
      Intercellular junctions play a pivotal role in tissue development and function and also in tumorigenesis. In epithelial cells, decrease or loss of E-cadherin, the hallmark molecule of adherens junctions (AJs), and increase of N-cadherin are widely thought to promote carcinoma progression and metastasis. In this paper, we show that this "cadherin switch" hypothesis does not hold for diverse endoderm-derived cells and cells of tumors derived from them. We show that the cadherins in a major portion of AJs in these cells can be chemically cross-linked in E-N heterodimers. We also show that cells possessing E-N heterodimer AJs can form semistable hemihomotypic AJs with purely N-cadherin-based AJs of mesenchymally derived cells, including stroma cells. We conclude that these heterodimers are the major AJ constituents of several endoderm-derived tissues and tumors and that the prevailing concept of antagonistic roles of these two cadherins in developmental and tumor biology has to be reconsidered.
    • Generation of healthy mice from gene-corrected disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells.

      Wu, Guangming; Liu, Na; Rittelmeyer, Ina; Sharma, Amar Deep; Sgodda, Malte; Zaehres, Holm; Bleidissel, Martina; Greber, Boris; Gentile, Luca; Han, Dong Wook; et al. (2011-07)
      Using the murine model of tyrosinemia type 1 (fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase [FAH] deficiency; FAH⁻/⁻ mice) as a paradigm for orphan disorders, such as hereditary metabolic liver diseases, we evaluated fibroblast-derived FAH⁻/⁻-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) as targets for gene correction in combination with the tetraploid embryo complementation method. First, after characterizing the FAH⁻/⁻ iPS cell lines, we aggregated FAH⁻/⁻-iPS cells with tetraploid embryos and obtained entirely FAH⁻/⁻-iPS cell-derived mice that were viable and exhibited the phenotype of the founding FAH⁻/⁻ mice. Then, we transduced FAH cDNA into the FAH⁻/⁻-iPS cells using a third-generation lentiviral vector to generate gene-corrected iPS cells. We could not detect any chromosomal alterations in these cells by high-resolution array CGH analysis, and after their aggregation with tetraploid embryos, we obtained fully iPS cell-derived healthy mice with an astonishing high efficiency for full-term development of up to 63.3%. The gene correction was validated functionally by the long-term survival and expansion of FAH-positive cells of these mice after withdrawal of the rescuing drug NTBC (2-(2-nitro-4-fluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that both a liver-specific promoter (transthyretin, TTR)-driven FAH transgene and a strong viral promoter (from spleen focus-forming virus, SFFV)-driven FAH transgene rescued the FAH-deficiency phenotypes in the mice derived from the respective gene-corrected iPS cells. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that a lentiviral gene repair strategy does not abrogate the full pluripotent potential of fibroblast-derived iPS cells, and genetic manipulation of iPS cells in combination with tetraploid embryo aggregation provides a practical and rapid approach to evaluate the efficacy of gene correction of human diseases in mouse models.
    • Induction of a mature hepatocyte phenotype in adult liver derived progenitor cells by ectopic expression of transcription factors.

      Iacob, Razvan; Rüdrich, Urda; Rothe, Michael; Kirsch, Sarah; Maasoumy, Benjamin; Narain, Nidhi; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Sancho-Bru, Pau; Iken, Marcus; Popescu, Irinel; et al. (2011-05)
      By ectopic expression of a distinct combination of transcription factors we aimed to induce a mature hepatocyte phenotype in an adult liver derived progenitor cell population (ALDPC).
    • Regional transient portal ischemia and irradiation as preparative regimen for hepatocyte transplantation.

      Koenig, S; Yuan, Q; Krause, P; Christiansen, H; Rave-Fraenk, M; Kafert-Kasting, S; Kriegbaum, H; Schneider, A; Ott, M; Meyburg, J; et al. (2011)
      Hepatocyte transplantation is regarded as a promising option to correct hereditary metabolic liver disease. This study describes a novel method involving regional transient portal ischemia (RTPI) in combination with hepatic irradiation (IR) as a preparative regimen for hepatocyte transplantation. The right lobules of rat livers (45% of liver mass) were subjected to RTPI of 30-120 min. Liver specimens and serum samples were analyzed for transaminase levels, DNA damage, apoptosis, and proliferation. Repopulation experiments involved livers of dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPPIV)-deficient rats preconditioned with RTPI (60-90 min) either with or without prior partial hepatic IR (25 Gy). After reperfusion intervals of 1 and 24 h, 12 million wild-type (DPPIV positive) hepatocytes were transplanted into recipient livers via the spleen. RTPI of 60-90 min caused limited hepatic injury through necrosis and induced a distinct regenerative response in the host liver. Twelve weeks following transplantation, small clusters of donor hepatocytes were detected within the portal areas. Quantitative analysis revealed limited engraftment of 0.79% to 2.95%, whereas control animals (sham OP) exhibited 4.16% (determined as relative activity of DPPIV when compared to wild-type liver). Repopulation was significantly enhanced (21.43%) when IR was performed prior to RTPI, optimum preconditioning settings being 90 min of ischemia and 1 h of reperfusion before transplantation. We demonstrate that RTPI alone is disadvantageous to donor cell engraftment, whereas the combination of IR with RTPI comprises an effective preparative regimen for liver repopulation. The method described clearly has potential for clinical application.