• Assessing the Concepts and Designs of 58 Mobile Apps for the Management of the 2014-2015 West Africa Ebola Outbreak: Systematic Review.

      Tom-Aba, Daniel; Nguku, Patrick Mboya; Arinze, Chinedu Chukwujekwu; Krause, Gerard; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-10-29)
      The use of mobile phone information technology (IT) in the health sector has received much attention especially during the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. mHealth can be attributed to a major improvement in EVD control, but there lacks an overview of what kinds of tools were available and used based on the functionalities they offer. We aimed to conduct a systematic review of mHealth tools in the context of the recent EVD outbreak to identify the most promising approaches and guide further mHealth developments for infectious disease control. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we searched for all reports on mHealth tools developed in the context of the 2014-2015 EVD outbreak published between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2015 on Google Scholar, MEDLINE, CAB Abstracts (Global Health), POPLINE, and Web of Science in any language using the search strategy: ("outbreak" OR "epidemic") AND ("mobile phone" OR "smartphone" OR "smart phone" OR "mobile phone" OR "tablet" OR "mHealth") AND ("Ebola" OR "EVD" OR "VHF" OR "Ebola virus disease" OR "viral hemorrhagic fever") AND ("2014" OR "2015"). The relevant publications were selected by 2 independent reviewers who applied a standardized data extraction form on the tools' functionalities. We identified 1220 publications through the search strategy, of which 6.31% (77/1220) were original publications reporting on 58 specific mHealth tools in the context of the EVD outbreak. Of these, 62% (34/55) offered functionalities for surveillance, 22% (10/45) for case management, 18% (7/38) for contact tracing, and 6% (3/51) for laboratory data management. Only 3 tools, namely Community Care, Sense Ebola Followup, and Surveillance and Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System supported all four of these functionalities.
    • The Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System (SORMAS): Digital Health Global Goods Maturity Assessment.

      Tom-Aba, Daniel; Silenou, Bernard Chawo; Doerrbecker, Juliane; Fourie, Carl; Leitner, Carl; Wahnschaffe, Martin; Strysewske, Maté; Arinze, Chinedu Chukwujekwu; Krause, Gerard; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (JMIR publications, 2020-04-29)
      Background: Digital health is a dynamic field that has been generating a large number of tools; many of these tools do not have the level of maturity required to function in a sustainable model. It is in this context that the concept of global goods maturity is gaining importance. Digital Square developed a global good maturity model (GGMM) for digital health tools, which engages the digital health community to identify areas of investment for global goods. The Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System (SORMAS) is an open-source mobile and web application software that we developed to enable health workers to notify health departments about new cases of epidemic-prone diseases, detect outbreaks, and simultaneously manage outbreak response. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the maturity of SORMAS using Digital Square's GGMM and to describe the applicability of the GGMM on the use case of SORMAS and identify opportunities for system improvements. Methods: We evaluated SORMAS using the GGMM version 1.0 indicators to measure its development. SORMAS was scored based on all the GGMM indicator scores. We described how we used the GGMM to guide the development of SORMAS during the study period. GGMM contains 15 subindicators grouped into the following core indicators: (1) global utility, (2) community support, and (3) software maturity. Results: The assessment of SORMAS through the GGMM from November 2017 to October 2019 resulted in full completion of all subscores (10/30, (33%) in 2017; 21/30, (70%) in 2018; and 30/30, (100%) in 2019). SORMAS reached the full score of the GGMM for digital health software tools by accomplishing all 10 points for each of the 3 indicators on global utility, community support, and software maturity. Conclusions: To our knowledge, SORMAS is the first electronic health tool for disease surveillance, and also the first outbreak response management tool, that has achieved a 100% score. Although some conceptual changes would allow for further improvements to the system, the GGMM already has a robust supportive effect on developing software toward global goods maturity.