Now showing items 1-20 of 201

    • A Probabilistic Cohort-Component Model for Population Forecasting – The Case of Germany

      Vanella, Patrizio; Deschermeier, Philipp (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-01-02)
    • An Overview of Population Projections—Methodological Concepts, International Data Availability, and Use Cases

      Vanella, Patrizio; Deschermeier, Philipp; Wilke, Christina B. (MDPI AG, 2020-09-02)
      Population projections serve various actors at subnational, national, and international levels as a quantitative basis for political and economic decision-making. Usually, the users are no experts in statistics or forecasting and therefore lack the methodological and demographic background to completely understand methods and limitations behind the projections they use to inform further analysis. Our contribution primarily targets that readership. Therefore, we give a brief overview of di erent approaches to population projection and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages, alongside practical problems in population data and forecasting. Fundamental di erences between deterministic and stochastic approaches are discussed, with special emphasis on the advantages of stochastic approaches. Next to selected projection data available to the public, we show central areas of application of population projections, with an emphasis on Germany
    • The assessment of childhood maltreatment and its associations with affective symptoms in adulthood: Results of the German National Cohort (NAKO).

      Klinger-König, Johanna; Streit, Fabian; Erhardt, Angelika; Kleineidam, Luca; Schmiedek, Florian; Schmidt, Börge; Investigators, Nako; Wagner, Michael; Deckert, Jürgen; Rietschel, Marcella; et al. (Taylor and Francis, 2022-03-18)
      Overall, 21,131 participants (27.5%) reported at least one type of childhood maltreatment; 14,017 participants (18.3%) reported exactly one type and 250 participants (0.3%) reported all five types of childhood maltreatment. Small differences regarding age (mean absolute deviation around the mean (MAD)=0.47), sex (MAD = 0.07) and education (MAD = 0.82) were observed. The severity of childhood maltreatment was associated with more severe symptoms of depression (β = 0.23), anxiety (β = 0.21) and perceived stress (β = 0.23) in adulthood, validated particularly for emotional abuse and emotional neglect.
    • Symptom Burden and Factors Associated with Acute Respiratory Infections in the First Two Years of Life-Results from the LoewenKIDS Cohort.

      Langer, Susan; Horn, Johannes; Gottschick, Cornelia; Klee, Bianca; Purschke, Oliver; Caputo, Mahrrouz; Dorendorf, Evelyn; Meyer-Schlinkmann, Kristin Maria; Raupach-Rosin, Heike; Karch, André; et al. (MDPI, 2022-01-05)
      Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the most common childhood illnesses worldwide whereby the reported frequency varies widely, often depending on type of assessment. Symptom diaries are a powerful tool to counteract possible under-reporting, particularly of milder infections, and thus offer the possibility to assess the full burden of ARIs. The following analyses are based on symptom diaries from participants of the German birth cohort study LoewenKIDS. Primary analyses included frequencies of ARIs and specific symptoms. Factors, which might be associated with an increased number of ARIs, were identified using the Poisson regression. A subsample of two hundred eighty-eight participants were included. On average, 13.7 ARIs (SD: 5.2 median: 14.0 IQR: 10-17) were reported in the first two years of life with an average duration of 11 days per episode (SD: 5.8, median: 9.7, IQR: 7-14). The median age for the first ARI episode was 91 days (IQR: 57-128, mean: 107, SD: 84.5). Childcare attendance and having siblings were associated with an increased frequency of ARIs, while exclusive breastfeeding for the first three months was associated with less ARIs, compared to exclusive breastfeeding for a longer period. This study provides detailed insight into the symptom burden of ARIs in German infants.
    • A mathematical model of how non-adherence to HIV management guidelines for infected newborns contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS

      Apenteng, Ofosuhene O.; Kwabla, Mavis Pearl; Ismail, Noor Azina; Gold, Kafilah Lola; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Routledge, 2021-11-11)
      Each year, millions of children are born with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a quarter of whom adhere poorly to HIV treatment guidelines. This study uses a simple mathematical model to investigate the basic dynamic processes by which infected newborns under treatment progress to AIDS and contribute to its spread. The results indicate that the disease-free steady state is unstable, raising substantial concern from the public health point of view. The results show that the fraction of newborns who fail to adhere to the HIV management guidelines (30%) significantly contributes to the spread of HIV. However, the rate of HIV-positive newborns under treatment therapy is significant. This study agrees that only a small proportion of HIV-positive newborns adhere to management guidelines. These analyses should yield significant knowledge to advance our understanding of HIV infection in the early stages of life.
    • Referral of presumptive TB among operators of community medicine outlets.

      Kwabla, M P; Amuasi, J H; Krause, G; Klett-Tammen, C J; Castell, S; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Ingenta connect, 2021-12-01)
      BACKGROUND: Case detection is an important part of TB control programmes. In 2007, the TB programme in Ghana join the WHO´s public-private partnership with community medicine outlet operators to increase referral of persons with presumptive TB for laboratory investigation. Information on factors likely to influence referral is scarce in Ghana. We assessed these factors among pharmacists and over-the-counter (OTC) medicine sellers.METHODS: In 2019-2020, we conducted computer-assisted telephone interviews among community pharmacists and OTC medicine sellers in the Eastern Region of Ghana. We used a structured questionnaire and collected data on respondents´ sociodemographics and professional characteristics. We used logistic regression to investigate characteristics associated with self-reported referral of presumptive TB cases.RESULTS: Of all respondents who completed the interviews, 68.7% (321/467) reported having ever referred a presumptive TB case and 72.1% (336/466) had received specific training. Associated factors of presumptive TB referral were having received specific training (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5-4.9); performing both dispensing and managerial functions (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.5); operating from OTC shop (OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.6-23.4) and the availability of a TB laboratory within walking distance (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2-9.5).CONCLUSION: Interviewees largely support TB referral. However, a significant proportion does not follow the strategy closely. We recommend more specific TB training courses.
    • Carbapenem-Resistant spp. as an Emerging Concern in the Hospital-Setting: Results From a Genome-Based Regional Surveillance Study.

      Yao, Yancheng; Falgenhauer, Linda; Falgenhauer, Jane; Hauri, Anja M; Heinmüller, Petra; Domann, Eugen; Chakraborty, Trinad; Imirzalioglu, Can; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Frontiers, 2021-11-11)
      The rise of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) represents an increasing threat to patient safety and healthcare systems worldwide. Citrobacter spp., long considered not to be a classical nosocomial pathogen, in contrast to Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, is fast gaining importance as a clinical multidrug-resistant pathogen. We analyzed the genomes of 512 isolates of 21 CRE species obtained from 61 hospitals within a three-year-period and found that Citrobacter spp. (C. freundii, C. portucalensis, C. europaeus, C. koseri and C. braakii) were increasingly detected (n=56) within the study period. The carbapenemase-groups detected in Citrobacter spp. were KPC, OXA-48/-like and MBL (VIM, NDM) accounting for 42%, 31% and 27% respectively, which is comparable to those of K. pneumoniae in the same study. They accounted for 10%, 17% and 14% of all carbapenemase-producing CRE detected in 2017, 2018 and 2019, respectively. The carbapenemase genes were almost exclusively located on plasmids. The high genomic diversity of C. freundii is represented by 22 ST-types. KPC-2 was the predominantly detected carbapenemase (n=19) and was located in 95% of cases on a highly-conserved multiple-drug-resistance-gene-carrying pMLST15 IncN plasmid. KPC-3 was rarely detected and was confined to a clonal outbreak of C. freundii ST18. OXA-48 carbapenemases were located on plasmids of the IncL/M (pOXA-48) type. About 50% of VIM-1 was located on different IncN plasmids (pMLST7, pMLST5). These results underline the increasing importance of the Citrobacter species as emerging carriers of carbapenemases and therefore as potential disseminators of Carbapenem- and multidrug-resistance in the hospital setting.
    • Effectiveness of Trainings of General Practitioners on Antibiotic Stewardship: Methods of a Pragmatic Quasi-Experimental Study in a Controlled Before-After Design in South-East-Lower Saxony, Germany (WASA).

      Gornyk, Daniela; Scharlach, Martina; Buhr-Riehm, Brigitte; Klett-Tammen, Carolina Judith; Eberhard, Sveja; Stahmeyer, Jona Theodor; Großhennig, Anika; Smith, Andrea; Meinicke, Sarah; Bautsch, Wilfried; et al. (Frontiers, 2021-04-22)
      Introduction: Antibiotic resistance is a serious threat to global public health. It reduces the effectiveness of treatments for serious bacterial infections and thus increases the risk of fatal outcomes. Antibiotic prescriptions are often not in line with clinical evidence-based guidelines. The process of emergence of resistant bacteria can be slowed down by adherence to guidelines. Yet this adherence seems to be lacking in primary health care. Methods and Analysis: This pragmatic quasi-experimental study using a controlled before-after design was carried out in South-East-Lower Saxony in 2018-2020. The voluntary attendance of interactive trainings with condensed presentation of current guidelines for general practitioners (GP) on antibiotic management for urinary and respiratory tract infections is regarded as intervention. Those GP not attending the trainings constitute the control group. Data were collected via questionnaires; routine health records are provided by a statutory health insurance. The primary outcome is the proportion of (guideline-based) prescriptions in relation to the relevant ICD-10 codes as well as daily defined doses and the difference in proportion of certain prescriptions according to guidelines before and after the intervention as compared to the control group. Further outcomes are among others the subjectively perceived risk of antibiotic resistance and the attitude toward the guidelines. The questionnaires to assess this are based on theory of planned behavior (TPB) and health action process approach (HAPA). Variations over time and effects caused by measures other than WASA (Wirksamkeit von Antibiotika-Schulungen in der niedergelassenen Aerzteschaft-Effectiveness of antibiotic management training in the primary health care sector) training are taken into account by including the control group and applying interrupted time series analysis. Ethics and Dissemination: The study protocol and the data protection concept respectively were reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Hannover Medical School and the Federal Commissioner for Data Protection and Freedom of Information. Trial Registration:, identifier DRKS00013951.
    • Reducing burden from respiratory infections in refugees and immigrants: a systematic review of interventions in OECD, EU, EEA and EU-applicant countries.

      Lambert, Jan-Frederic; Stete, Katarina; Balmford, James; Bockey, Annabelle; Kern, Winfried; Rieg, Siegbert; Boeker, Martin; Lange, Berit; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (BMC, 2021-08-26)
      Background: Respiratory diseases are a major reason for refugees and other immigrants seeking health care in countries of arrival. The burden of respiratory diseases in refugees is exacerbated by sometimes poor living conditions characterised by crowding in mass accommodations and basic living portals. The lack of synthesised evidence and guideline-relevant information to reduce morbidity and mortality from respiratory infections endangers this population. Methods: A systematic review of all controlled and observational studies assessing interventions targeting the treatment, diagnosis and management of respiratory infections in refugees and immigrants in OECD, EU, EEA and EU-applicant countries published between 2000 and 2019 in MEDLINE, CINAHL, PSYNDEX and the Web of Science. Results: Nine of 5779 identified unique records met our eligibility criteria. Seven studies reported an increase in vaccine coverage from 2 to 52% after educational multilingual interventions for respiratory-related childhood diseases (4 studies) and for influenza (5 studies). There was limited evidence in one study that hand sanitiser reduced rates of upper respiratory infections and when provided together with face masks also the rates of influenza-like-illness in a hard to reach migrant neighbourhood. In outbreak situations of vaccine-preventable diseases, secondary cases and outbreak hazards were reduced by general vaccination strategies early after arrival but not by serological testing after exposure (1 study). We identified evidence gaps regarding interventions assessing housing standards, reducing burden of bacterial pneumonia and implementation of operational standards in refugee care and reception centres. Conclusions: Multilingual health literacy interventions should be considered to increase uptake of vaccinations in refugees and immigrants. Immediate vaccinations upon arrival at refugee housings may reduce secondary infections and outbreaks. Well-designed controlled studies on housing and operational standards in refugee and immigrant populations early after arrival as well as adequate ways to gain informed consent for early vaccinations in mass housings is required to inform guidelines.
    • Cellular and humoral immunogenicity of a SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine in patients on haemodialysis.

      Strengert, Monika; Becker, Matthias; Ramos, Gema Morillas; Dulovic, Alex; Gruber, Jens; Juengling, Jennifer; Lürken, Karsten; Beigel, Andrea; Wrenger, Eike; Lonnemann, Gerhard; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-08-12)
      Background: Patients with chronic renal insufficiency on maintenance haemodialysis face an increased risk of COVID-19 induced mortality and impaired vaccine responses. To date, only a few studies have addressed SARS-CoV-2 vaccine elicited immunity in this immunocompromised population. Methods: We assessed immunogenicity of the mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 in at-risk dialysis patients and characterised systemic cellular and humoral immune responses in serum and saliva using interferon γ release assay and multiplex-based cytokine and immunoglobulin measurements. We further compared binding capacity and neutralization efficacy of vaccination-induced immunoglobulins against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants Alpha, Beta, Epsilon and Cluster 5 by ACE2-RBD competition assay. Findings: Patients on maintenance haemodialysis exhibit detectable but variable cellular and humoral immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern after a two-dose regimen of BNT162b2. Although vaccination-induced immunoglobulins were detectable in saliva and plasma, both anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and neutralization efficacy was reduced compared to a vaccinated non-dialysed control population. Similarly, T-cell mediated interferon γ release after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides was significantly diminished. Interpretation: Quantifiable humoral and cellular immune responses after BNT162b2 vaccination in individuals on maintenance haemodialysis are encouraging, but urge for longitudinal follow-up to assess longevity of immunity. Diminished virus neutralization and interferon γ responses in the face of emerging variants of concern may favour this at-risk population for re-vaccination using modified vaccines at the earliest opportunity. Funding: Initiative and Networking Fund of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres, EU Horizon 2020 research and innovation program, State Ministry of Baden-Württemberg for Economic Affairs, Labour and Tourism.
    • Assessing excess mortality in times of pandemics based on principal component analysis of weekly mortality data-the case of COVID-19.

      Vanella, Patrizio; Basellini, Ugofilippo; Lange, Berit; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Springer Nature, 2021-08-09)
      The COVID-19 outbreak has called for renewed attention to the need for sound statistical analyses to monitor mortality patterns and trends over time. Excess mortality has been suggested as the most appropriate indicator to measure the overall burden of the pandemic in terms of mortality. As such, excess mortality has received considerable interest since the outbreak of COVID-19 began. Previous approaches to estimate excess mortality are somewhat limited, as they do not include sufficiently long-term trends, correlations among different demographic and geographic groups, or autocorrelations in the mortality time series. This might lead to biased estimates of excess mortality, as random mortality fluctuations may be misinterpreted as excess mortality. We propose a novel approach that overcomes the named limitations and draws a more realistic picture of excess mortality. Our approach is based on an established forecasting model that is used in demography, namely, the Lee-Carter model. We illustrate our approach by using the weekly age- and sex-specific mortality data for 19 countries and the current COVID-19 pandemic as a case study. Our findings show evidence of considerable excess mortality during 2020 in Europe, which affects different countries, age, and sex groups heterogeneously. Our proposed model can be applied to future pandemics as well as to monitor excess mortality from specific causes of death.
    • Real-time monitoring of COVID-19 dynamics using automated trend fitting and anomaly detection.

      Jombart, Thibaut; Ghozzi, Stéphane; Schumacher, Dirk; Taylor, Timothy J; Leclerc, Quentin J; Jit, Mark; Flasche, Stefan; Greaves, Felix; Ward, Tom; Eggo, Rosalind M; et al. (The Royal Society, 2021-05-31)
      As several countries gradually release social distancing measures, rapid detection of new localized COVID-19 hotspots and subsequent intervention will be key to avoiding large-scale resurgence of transmission. We introduce ASMODEE (automatic selection of models and outlier detection for epidemics), a new tool for detecting sudden changes in COVID-19 incidence. Our approach relies on automatically selecting the best (fitting or predicting) model from a range of user-defined time series models, excluding the most recent data points, to characterize the main trend in an incidence. We then derive prediction intervals and classify data points outside this interval as outliers, which provides an objective criterion for identifying departures from previous trends. We also provide a method for selecting the optimal breakpoints, used to define how many recent data points are to be excluded from the trend fitting procedure. The analysis of simulated COVID-19 outbreaks suggests ASMODEE compares favourably with a state-of-art outbreak-detection algorithm while being simpler and more flexible. As such, our method could be of wider use for infectious disease surveillance. We illustrate ASMODEE using publicly available data of National Health Service (NHS) Pathways reporting potential COVID-19 cases in England at a fine spatial scale, showing that the method would have enabled the early detection of the flare-ups in Leicester and Blackburn with Darwen, two to three weeks before their respective lockdown. ASMODEE is implemented in the free R package trendbreaker. This article is part of the theme issue 'Modelling that shaped the early COVID-19 pandemic response in the UK'.
    • Needs for an Integration of Specific Data Sources and Items - First Insights of a National Survey Within the German Center for Infection Research.

      Jakob, Carolin E M; Stecher, Melanie; Fuhrmann, Sandra; Wingen-Heimann, Sebastian; Heinen, Stephanie; Anton, Gabriele; Behnke, Michael; Behrends, Uta; Boeker, Martin; Castell, Stefanie; et al. (IOS Press, 2021-05-24)
      State-subsidized programs develop medical data integration centers in Germany. To get infection disease (ID) researchers involved in the process of data sharing, common interests and minimum data requirements were prioritized. In 06/2019 we have initiated the German Infectious Disease Data Exchange (iDEx) project. We have developed and performed an online survey to determine prioritization of requests for data integration and exchange in ID research. The survey was designed with three sub-surveys, including a ranking of 15 data categories and 184 specific data items and a query of available 51 data collecting systems. A total of 84 researchers from 17 fields of ID research participated in the survey (predominant research fields: gastrointestinal infections n=11, healthcare-associated and antibiotic-resistant infections n=10, hepatitis n=10). 48% (40/84) of participants had experience as medical doctor. The three top ranked data categories were microbiology and parasitology, experimental data, and medication (53%, 52%, and 47% of maximal points, respectively). The most relevant data items for these categories were bloodstream infections, availability of biomaterial, and medication (88%, 87%, and 94% of maximal points, respectively). The ranking of requests of data integration and exchange is diverse and depends on the chosen measure. However, there is need to promote discipline-related digitalization and data exchange.
    • Effect modification of the association between comorbidities and severe course of COVID-19 disease by age of study participants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

      Fernández Villalobos, Nathalie Verónica; Ott, Jördis Jennifer; Klett-Tammen, Carolina Judith; Bockey, Annabelle; Vanella, Patrizio; Krause, Gérard; Lange, Berit; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (BMC, 2021-06-30)
      Adjusting the protecting group strategy, from an alkyl ether to a bidentate ketal at the carbohydrate backbone of uridine, facilitates a switchable diastereoselective α- or β-C4'/C5'-spirocyclopropanation. Using these spirocyclopropanated nucleosides as key intermediates, we synthesized a variety of C4'-methylated d-ribose and l-lyxose-configured uridine derivatives by a base-mediated ring-opening of the spirocyclopropanol moiety. Investigations of antiviral activity against the human respiratory syncytial virus were carried out for selected derivatives, showing moderate activity.
    • Der Einfluss des Klimawandels auf die Ausbreitung von Infektionserkrankungen – am Beispiel der Lyme-Borreliose

      Lotto-Batista, Martín; Behrens, Christiane; Castell, Stefanie; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Medizinisch Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, 2021-06-07)
      Durch Zecken übertragene Erkrankungen gehören zu den häufigsten klimasensitiven Infektionserkrankungen auf der Nordhalbkugel. Lyme-Borreliose weist dabei die höchste Prävalenz unter diesen Erkrankungen in Europa, wo Ixodes ricinus (Gemeiner Holzbock) sehr verbreitet ist, auf. Mit fortschreitendem Klimawandel ändern sich die Bedingungen für die Verbreitung von Zeckenpopulationen, zum einen aufgrund von Temperatur- oder Niederschlagsver- änderungen, zum anderen wegen Änderungen in der Landnutzung sowie im menschlichen Verhalten. Während für Nordeuropa eine vermehrte Ausbreitung der Zecken erwartet wird, könnten vermehrte Trockenheit und Hitzeepisoden einen Rückgang der Zeckenpopulationen in mittleren und südlichen Regionen, die gegenwärtig Risikogebiete sind, bewirken. Folglich könnte Deutschland von den schlechteren Bedingungen für das Überleben von Zecken profitieren. Dennoch ist das komplexe System, das zur Entwicklung der Borreliose-Fallzahlen beiträgt, flexibel genug, um diesen Klimaeffekten entgegenzuwirken. Weitere Forschungsarbeiten sind notwendig, um die Auswirkungen des Klimawandels auf das Risiko von Borreliose in Deutschland vorhersagen zu können. Wenn immer mehr detailliertere Klimaprojektionen verfügbar werden, sollten Vorhersagen, die zu verbesserten oder regional spezifischeren Public Health-Empfehlungen in naher Zukunft sichtbar sein.
    • Maintaining a gendered perspective in scientific meetings during the COVID-19 pandemic.

      Lange, Berit; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Lancet, 2020-03-14)
      [No abstract available]
    • Exploring beyond clinical routine SARS-CoV-2 serology using MultiCoV-Ab to evaluate endemic coronavirus cross-reactivity.

      Becker, Matthias; Strengert, Monika; Junker, Daniel; Kaiser, Philipp D; Kerrinnes, Tobias; Traenkle, Bjoern; Dinter, Heiko; Häring, Julia; Ghozzi, Stéphane; Zeck, Anne; et al. (NPG, 2021-02-19)
      The humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is a benchmark for immunity and detailed analysis is required to understand the manifestation and progression of COVID-19, monitor seroconversion within the general population, and support vaccine development. The majority of currently available commercial serological assays only quantify the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response against individual antigens, limiting our understanding of the immune response. To overcome this, we have developed a multiplex immunoassay (MultiCoV-Ab) including spike and nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and the endemic human coronaviruses. Compared to three broadly used commercial in vitro diagnostic tests, our MultiCoV-Ab achieves a higher sensitivity and specificity when analyzing a well-characterized sample set of SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected individuals. We find a high response against endemic coronaviruses in our sample set, but no consistent cross-reactive IgG response patterns against SARS-CoV-2. Here we show a robust, high-content-enabled, antigen-saving multiplex assay suited to both monitoring vaccination studies and facilitating epidemiologic screenings for humoral immunity towards pandemic and endemic coronaviruses.
    • The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Self-Reported Health.

      Peters, Annette; Rospleszcz, Susanne; Greiser, Karin H; Dallavalle, Marco; Berger, Klaus; German National Cohort; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany.
      Background: The pandemic caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and the countermeasures taken to protect the public are having a substantial effect on the health of the population. In Germany, nationwide protective measures to halt the spread of the virus were implemented in mid-March for 6 weeks. Methods: In May, the impact of the pandemic was assessed in the German National Cohort (NAKO). A total of 113 928 men and women aged 20 to 74 years at the time of the baseline examination conducted 1 to 5 years earlier (53%) answered, within a 30-day period, a follow-up questionnaire on SARS-CoV-2 test status, COVID-19- associated symptoms, and self-perceived health status. Results: The self-reported SARS-CoV-2 test frequency among the probands was 4.6%, and 344 participants (0.3%) reported a positive test result. Depressive and anxiety-related symptoms increased relative to baseline only in participants under 60 years of age, particularly in young women. The rate of moderate to severe depressive symptoms increased from 6.4% to 8.8%. Perceived stress increased in all age groups and both sexes, especially in the young. The scores for mental state and self-rated health worsened in participants tested for SARS-CoV-2 compared with those who were not tested. In 32% of the participants, however, self-rated health improved. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic and the protective measures during the first wave had effects on mental health and on self-rated general health.
    • Das gemeinsame Interesse von Gesundheit und Wirtschaft: Eine Szenarienrechnung zur Eindämmung der Corona Pandemie

      Dorn, Florian; et al.; BRICS, Braunschweiger Zentrum für Systembiologie, Rebenring 56,38106 Braunschweig, Germany.; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (ifo Institut, 2020-05-12)
      [No Abstract available]
    • User preferences for a mobile application to report adverse events following vaccination.

      Nguyen, M T H; Ott, J J; Caputo, M; Keller-Stanislawski, B; Klett-Tammen, C J; Linnig, S; Mentzer, D; Krause, G; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Ingenta Connect, 2020-01-01)
      The passive surveillance system is an important tool in pharmacovigilance of vaccines. However, reporting of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) post-marketing has limitations regarding under-reporting, biased reports and lack of exposure data resulting in imprecise estimates. New mobile application technology may provide an opportunity for an enhanced surveillance. A pre-requisite for the use of new app-based technology is to identify practical challenges and end users' preferences for design of app-features. The objectives were (i) to investigate the recruitment and feasibility of an app-based study in Germany, (ii) to assess individuals' motivation to participate in such a study and (iii) to identify app-features for reporting AEFI. We conducted a cross-sectional study among employees of a financial institution who attended the occupational health office during the seasonal influenza vaccination in November 2017. Participants tested feasibility and assessed an app prototype for AEFI reporting by using a case vignette and a questionnaire. Of the 153 attending employees, 65 (42%) agreed to participate and returned the questionnaire. Twenty-three (63%) rated the experience of reporting AEFI with the app prototype to be positive. Among three features offered for gamification, collecting points was most frequently chosen (n=22, 34%). The main reason for declining participation was the apprehension about data protection (n=28, 43%). Results suggest that the app-based technology was well accepted and is a suitable supplement for AEFI reporting and in our study. A convincing data protection concept is likely to enhance acceptability of such a system.