• Fate of the UPR marker protein Kar2/Bip and autophagic processes in fed-batch cultures of secretory insulin precursor producing Pichia pastoris.

      Roth, Gustavo; Vanz, Ana Letícia; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Nimtz, Manfred; Rinas, Ursula; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-08-09)
      Secretory recombinant protein production with Pichia (syn. Komagataella) pastoris is commonly associated with the induction of an unfolded protein response (UPR) usually apparent through increased intracellular levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident chaperones such as Kar2/Bip. During methanol-induced secretory production of an insulin precursor (IP) under industrially relevant fed-batch conditions the initially high level of intracellular Kar2/Bip after batch growth on glycerol unexpectedly declined in the following methanol fed-batch phase misleadingly suggesting that IP production had a low impact on UPR activation. Analysis of the protein production independent level of Kar2/Bip revealed that high Kar2/Bip levels were reached in the exponential growth phase of glycerol batch cultures followed by a strong decline of Kar2/Bip during entry into stationary phase. Ultra-structural cell morphology studies revealed autophagic processes (e.g. ER phagy) at the end of the glycerol batch phase most likely responsible for the degradation of ER resident chaperones such as Kar2/Bip. The pre-induction level of Kar2/Bip did not affect the IP secretion efficiency in the subsequent methanol-induced IP production phase. During growth on methanol intracellular Kar2/Bip levels declined in IP producing and non-producing host cells. However, extracellular accumulation of Kar2/Bip was observed in IP-producing cultures but not in non-producing controls. Most importantly, the majority of the extracellular Kar2/Bip accumulated in the culture supernatant of IP producing cells as truncated protein (approx. 35 kDa). Rapid growth leads to higher basal levels of the major UPR marker protein Kar2/Bip independent of recombinant protein production. Entry into stationary phase or slower growth on poorer substrate, e.g. methanol, leads to a lower basal Kar2/Bip level. Methanol-induced secretory IP production elicits a strong UPR activation which counteracts the reduced UPR during slow growth on methanol. The major ER chaperone Kar2/Bip is found together with recombinant IP in the culture medium where full-length Kar2/Bip accumulates in addition to large amounts of truncated Kar2/Bip. Thus, for judging UPR activating properties of the produced protein it is important to additionally analyze the medium not only for intact Kar2/Bip but also for truncated versions of this UPR reporter protein.
    • FKBPs in bacterial infections.

      Ünal, Can M; Steinert, Michael; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2015-10)
      FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) contain a domain with peptidyl-prolyl-cis/trans-isomerase (PPIase) activity and bind the immunosuppressive drugs FK506 and rapamycin. FKBPs belong to the immunophilin family and are found in eukaryotes and bacteria.
    • Functional and immunogenic characterization of diverse HCV glycoprotein E2 variants.

      Khera, Tanvi; Behrendt, Patrick; Bankwitz, Dorothea; Brown, Richard J P; Todt, Daniel; Doepke, Mandy; Ghafoor Khan, Abdul; Schulze, Kai; Law, John; Logan, Michael; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-11-12)
      Induction of cross-reactive antibodies targeting conserved epitopes of the envelope proteins E1E2 is a key requirement for an HCV vaccine. Conserved epitopes like the viral CD81-binding site are targeted by rare broadly neutralizing antibodies. However, these viral segments are occluded by variable regions and glycans. We aimed to identify antigens exposing conserved epitopes and to characterize their immunogenicity. We created HCV variants with mutated glycosylation sites and/or hypervariable region 1 (HVR1). Exposure of the CD81 binding site and conserved epitopes was quantified by soluble CD81 and antibody interaction and neutralization assays. E2 or E1-E2 heterodimers with mutations causing epitope exposure were used to immunize mice. Vaccine-induced antibodies were examined and compared with patient-derived antibodies. Mutant viruses bound soluble CD81 and antibodies targeting the CD81 binding site with enhanced efficacy. Mice immunized with E2 or E1E2 heterodimers incorporating these modifications mounted strong, cross-binding, and non-interfering antibodies. E2-induced antibodies neutralized the autologous virus but they were not cross-neutralizing. Viruses lacking the HVR1 and selected glycosylation sites expose the CD81 binding site and cross-neutralization antibody epitopes. Recombinant E2 proteins carrying these modifications induce strong cross-binding but not cross-neutralizing antibodies.
    • Functional design of pH-responsive folate-targeted polymer-coated gold nanoparticles for drug delivery and in vivo therapy in breast cancer

      Mahalunkar, Sneha; Yadav, Amit Singh; Gorain, Mahadeo; Pawar, Vinay; Braathen, Ranveig; Weiss, Siegfried; Bogen, Bjarne; Gosavi, Suresh W.; Kundu, Gopal C.; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2019-01-01)
      Background: Curcumin has been widely used owing to its various medicinal properties including antitumor effects. However, its clinical application is limited by its instability, poor solubility and low bioavailability. Folic acid (FA)-functionalized nanoformulations may enhance the sustained release of an anticancer drug (curcumin) by tumor-specific targeting to improve therapeutic benefit. This study aims to design a nanoconjugate (NC) comprised of folate–curcumin-loaded gold–polyvinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles (FA–CurAu-PVP NPs) for targeted delivery in breast cancer model systems. Methods: We developed curcumin-loaded FA-functionalized Au-PVP NCs by layer-by-layer assembly. The folic acid–curcumin Au-PVP NCs (FA–CurAu-PVP NCs) were characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. In vitro anticancer and antimigratory effects of NCs were examined by performing MTT and wound migration assays. The in vivo antitumor efficacy of NCs was investigated using a preclinical breast cancer orthotopic mouse model. Results: Curcumin (40 µg/mL) was loaded along with conjugation of folate onto Au-PVP NPs to form FA–CurAu-PVP NCs. The size and charge of the NCs were increased gradually through layer-by-layer assembly and showed 80% release of curcumin at acidic pH. The NC did not show aggregation when incubated with human serum and mimicked an intrinsic peroxidase-like property in the presence of 3,3ʹ,5,5ʹ-tetramethylbenzidine substrate. The MTT data using these NCs showed efficient anticancer activity at lower doses in estrogen/ progesterone receptor (ER/PR)-negative cells compared with ER/PR-positive cells. Furthermore, the NCs did not show cytotoxicity at the investigated concentration in human breast epithelial and mouse fibroblast cell lines. They showed inhibitory effects on cell migration and high antitumor efficacy in in vivo analysis. Conclusion: These results suggest that folate-based tumor targeting using CurAu-PVP NCs is a promising approach for tumor-specific therapy of breast cancer without harming normal cells.
    • Future Organization of Clinical Research in Germany: The Road to the "German Centre for Digestive Health" (GCDH).

      Manns, Michael P; Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School (MHH), Hannover, Germany. (2016-12)
    • Gain of function in Jak2V617F-positive T-cells.

      Nishanth, G; Wolleschak, D; Fahldieck, C; Fischer, T; Mullally, A; Perner, F; Schnöder, T M; Just, S; Heidel, F H; Schlüter, D; et al. (2017-04)
    • Glutathione Restricts Serine Metabolism to Preserve Regulatory T Cell Function.

      Kurniawan, Henry; Franchina, Davide G; Guerra, Luana; Bonetti, Lynn; -Baguet, Leticia Soriano; Grusdat, Melanie; Schlicker, Lisa; Hunewald, Oliver; Dostert, Catherine; Merz, Myriam P; et al. (Elsevier (Cell Press), 2020-03-25)
      Regulatory T cells (Tregs) maintain immune homeostasis and prevent autoimmunity. Serine stimulates glutathione (GSH) synthesis and feeds into the one-carbon metabolic network (1CMet) essential for effector T cell (Teff) responses. However, serine's functions, linkage to GSH, and role in stress responses in Tregs are unknown. Here, we show, using mice with Treg-specific ablation of the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclc), that GSH loss in Tregs alters serine import and synthesis and that the integrity of this feedback loop is critical for Treg suppressive capacity. Although Gclc ablation does not impair Treg differentiation, mutant mice exhibit severe autoimmunity and enhanced anti-tumor responses. Gclc-deficient Tregs show increased serine metabolism, mTOR activation, and proliferation but downregulated FoxP3. Limitation of cellular serine in vitro and in vivo restores FoxP3 expression and suppressive capacity of Gclc-deficient Tregs. Our work reveals an unexpected role for GSH in restricting serine availability to preserve Treg functionality.
    • Guidelines for Small-Scale Production and Purification of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Virus-Like Particles from Recombinant Pichia pastoris.

      Zahid, Maria; Rinas, Ursula; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Humana Press, 2019-01-01)
      Virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines have been in the market since decades for preventing viral infection and have proven their usefulness also in other areas of biotechnology. Here, we describe in detail simple small-scale production and purification procedures for the generation of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) VLPs using Pichia pastoris as expression host. This protocol may also be applicable with variations to other HBsAg-based VLPs additionally carrying antigens of other pathogens.
    • Helicobacter pylori vacA genotype is a predominant determinant of immune response to Helicobacter pylori CagA.

      Link, Alexander; Langner, Cosima; Schirrmeister, Wiebke; Habendorf, Wiebke; Weigt, Jochen; Venerito, Marino; Tammer, Ina; Schlüter, Dirk; Schlaermann, Philipp; Meyer, Thomas F; et al. (2017-07-14)
      To evaluate the frequency of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) CagA antibodies in H. pylori infected subjects and to identify potential histopathological and bacterial factors related to H. pylori CagA-immune response.
    • Heparin: role in protein purification and substitution with animal-component free material.

      Bolten, Svenja Nicolin; Rinas, Ursula; Scheper, Thomas; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Springer, 2018-10-01)
      Heparin is a highly sulfated polysaccharide which belongs to the family of glycosaminoglycans. It is involved in various important biological activities. The major biological purpose is the inhibition of the coagulation cascade to maintain the blood flow in the vasculature. These properties are employed in several therapeutic drugs. Heparin's activities are associated with its interaction to various proteins. To date, the structural heparin-protein interactions are not completely understood. This review gives a general overview of specific patterns and functional groups which are involved in the heparin-protein binding. An understanding of the heparin-protein interactions at the molecular level is not only advantageous in the therapeutic application but also in biotechnological application of heparin for downstreaming. This review focuses on the heparin affinity chromatography. Diverse recombinant proteins can be successfully purified by this method. While effective, it is disadvantageous that heparin is an animal-derived material. Animal-based components carry the risk of contamination. Therefore, they are liable to strict quality controls and the validation of effective good manufacturing practice (GMP) implementation. Hence, adequate alternatives to animal-derived components are needed. This review examines strategies to avoid these disadvantages. Thereby, alternatives for the provision of heparin such as chemical synthesized heparin, chemoenzymatic heparin, and bioengineered heparin are discussed. Moreover, the usage of other chromatographic systems mimetic the heparin effect is reviewed.
    • Hepatitis D virus in Africa: several unmet needs.

      Manns, Michael P; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr.7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017-10)
    • Hepatitis E Virus (HEV)-Specific T Cell Receptor Cross-Recognition: Implications for Immunotherapy.

      Soon, Chai Fen; Zhang, Shihong; Suneetha, Pothakamuri Venkata; Antunes, Dinler Amaral; Manns, Michael Peter; Raha, Solaiman; Schultze-Florey, Christian; Prinz, Immo; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Sällberg Chen, Margaret; et al. (Frontiers, 2019-01-01)
      T cell immunotherapy is a concept developed for the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases, based on cytotoxic T lymphocytes to target tumor- or pathogen-specific antigens. Antigen-specificity of the T cell receptors (TCRs) is an important selection criterion in the developmental design of immunotherapy. However, off-target specificity is a possible autoimmunity concern if the engineered antigen-specific T cells are cross-reacting to self-peptides in-vivo. In our recent work, we identified several hepatitis E virus (HEV)-specific TCRs as potential candidates to be developed into T cell therapy to treat chronic hepatitis E. One of the identified TCRs, targeting a HLA-A2-restricted epitope at the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (HEV-1527: LLWNTVWNM), possessed a unique multiple glycine motif in the TCR-β CDR3, which might be a factor inducing cross-reactivity. The aim of our study was to explore if this TCR could cross-recognize self-peptides to underlay autoimmunity. Indeed, we found that this HEV-1527-specific TCR could also cross-recognize an apoptosis-related epitope, Nonmuscle Myosin Heavy Chain 9 (MYH9-478: QLFNHTMFI). While this TCR had dual specificities to both viral epitope and a self-antigen by double Dextramer binding, it was selectively functional against HEV-1527 but not activated against MYH9-478. The consecutive glycine motif in β chain may be the reason promoting TCR binding promiscuity to recognize a secondary target, thereby facilitating cross-recognition. In conclusion, candidate TCRs for immunotherapy development should be screened for autoimmune potential, especially when the TCRs exhibit unique sequence pattern.
    • Hepatocyte-specific suppression of microRNA-221-3p mitigates liver fibrosis.

      Tsay, Hsin-Chieh; Yuan, Qinggong; Balakrishnan, Asha; Kaiser, Marina; Möbus, Selina; Kozdrowska, Emilia; Farid, Marwa; Tegtmeyer, Pia-Katharina; Borst, Katharina; Vondran, Florian W R; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-12-22)
      Fibrosis, a cardinal feature of a dysfunctional liver, significantly contributes to the ever-increasing mortality due to end-stage chronic liver diseases. The crosstalk between hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) plays a key role in the progression of fibrosis. Although ample efforts have been devoted to elucidate the functions of HSCs during liver fibrosis, the regulatory functions of hepatocytes remain elusive. Using an unbiased functional microRNA (miRNA) screening, we investigated the ability of hepatocytes to regulate fibrosis by fine-tuning gene expression via miRNA modulation. The in vivo functional analyses were performed by inhibiting miRNA in hepatocytes using adeno-associated virus in carbon-tetrachloride- and 3,5-di-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine-induced liver fibrosis. Blocking miRNA-221-3p function in hepatocytes during chronic liver injury facilitated recovery of the liver and faster resolution of the deposited extracellular matrix. Furthermore, we demonstrate that reduced secretion of C-C motif chemokine ligand 2, as a result of post-transcriptional regulation of GNAI2 (G protein alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2) by miRNA-221-3p, mitigates liver fibrosis. Collectively, miRNA modulation in hepatocytes, an easy-to-target cell type in the liver, may serve as a potential therapeutic approach for liver fibrosis.
    • Human Anti-Lipopolysaccharid (LPS) antibodies against Legionella with high species specificity.

      Kuhn, Philipp; Thiem, Stefanie; Steinert, Michael; Purvis, Duncan; Lugmayr, Veronika; Treutlein, Ulrich; Plobner, Lutz; Leiser, Robert-Matthias; Hust, Michael; Dübel, Stefan; et al. (2017-07-19)
      Legionella are Gram-negative bacteria that are ubiquitously present in natural and man-made water reservoirs. When humans inhale aerosolized water contaminated with Legionella, alveolar macrophages can be infected, which may lead to a life-threatening pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease. Due to the universal distribution of Legionella in water and their potential threat to human health, the Legionella concentration in water for human use must be strictly monitored, which is difficult since the standard detection still relies on lengthy cultivation and analysis of bacterial morphology. In this study, an antibody against L. pneumophila has been generated from the naïve human HAL antibody libraries by phage-display for the first time. The panning was performed on whole bacterial cells in order to select antibodies that bind specifically to the cell surface of untreated Legionella. The bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was identified as the target structure. Specific binding to the important pathogenic L. pneumophila strains Corby, Philadelphia-1 and Knoxville was observed, while no binding was detected to seven members of the families Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae or Clostridiaceae. Production of this antibody in the recombinant scFv-Fc format using either a murine or a human Fc part allowed the set-up of a sandwich-ELISA for detection of Legionella cells. The scFv-Fc construct proved to be very stable, even when stored for several weeks at elevated temperatures. A sensitivity limit of 4,000 cells was achieved. The scFv-Fc antibody pair was integrated on a biosensor, demonstrating the specific and fast detection of L. pneumophila on a portable device. With this system, 10,000 Legionella cells were detected within 35 min. Combined with a water filtration/concentration system, this antibody may be developed into a promising reagent for rapid on-site Legionella monitoring.
    • Identification of a Predominantly Interferon-λ-Induced Transcriptional Profile in Murine Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

      Selvakumar, Tharini A; Bhushal, Sudeep; Kalinke, Ulrich; Wirth, Dagmar; Hauser, Hansjörg; Köster, Mario; Hornef, Mathias W; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017-01-01)
      Type I (α and β) and type III (λ) interferons (IFNs) induce the expression of a large set of antiviral effector molecules
    • Impact of process temperature and organic loading rate on cellulolytic/hydrolytic biofilm microbiomes during biomethanation of ryegrass silage revealed by genome-centered metagenomics and metatranscriptomics

      Maus, Irena; Klocke, Michael; Derenkó, Jaqueline; Stolze, Yvonne; Beckstette, Michael; Jost, Carsten; Wibberg, Daniel; Blom, Jochen; Henke, Christian; Willenbücher, Katharina; et al. (BMC, 2020-03-02)
      Background: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of protein-rich grass silage was performed in experimental two-stage twophase biogas reactor systems at low vs. increased organic loading rates (OLRs) under mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) temperatures. To follow the adaptive response of the biomass-attached cellulolytic/hydrolytic biofilms at increasing ammonium/ammonia contents, genome-centered metagenomics and transcriptional profiling based on metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) were conducted. Results: In total, 78 bacterial and archaeal MAGs representing the most abundant members of the communities, and featuring defined quality criteria were selected and characterized in detail. Determination of MAG abundances under the tested conditions by mapping of the obtained metagenome sequence reads to the MAGs revealed that MAG abundance profiles were mainly shaped by the temperature but also by the OLR. However, the OLR effect was more pronounced for the mesophilic systems as compared to the thermophilic ones. In contrast, metatranscriptome mapping to MAGs subsequently normalized to MAG abundances showed that under thermophilic conditions, MAGs respond to increased OLRs by shifting their transcriptional activities mainly without adjusting their proliferation rates. This is a clear difference compared to the behavior of the microbiome under mesophilic conditions. Here, the response to increased OLRs involved adjusting of proliferation rates and corresponding transcriptional activities. The analysis led to the identification of MAGs positively responding to increased OLRs. The most outstanding MAGs in this regard, obviously well adapted to higher OLRs and/or associated conditions, were assigned to the order Clostridiales (Acetivibrio sp.) for the mesophilic biofilm and the orders Bacteroidales (Prevotella sp. and an unknown species), Lachnospirales (Herbinix sp. and Kineothrix sp.) and Clostridiales (Clostridium sp.) for the thermophilic biofilm. Genome-based metabolic reconstruction and transcriptional profiling revealed that positively responding MAGs mainly are involved in hydrolysis of grass silage, acidogenesis and / or acetogenesis. Conclusions: An integrated -omics approach enabled the identification of new AD biofilm keystone species featuring outstanding performance under stress conditions such as increased OLRs. Genome-based knowledge on the metabolic potential and transcriptional activity of responsive microbiome members will contribute to the development of improved microbiological AD management strategies for biomethanation of renewable biomass. Keywords: Metagenome assembled genomes, Integrated -omics, Polyomics, Anaerobic digestion, Biogas, Bioconversion, Microbial community structure, Methane, Metabolic activity
    • Impact of Von Willebrand Factor on Bacterial Pathogenesis.

      Steinert, Michael; Ramming, Isabell; Bergmann, Simone; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Frontiers, 2020-09-03)
      Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a mechano-sensitive protein with crucial functions in normal hemostasis, which are strongly dependant on the shear-stress mediated defolding and multimerization of VWF in the blood stream. Apart from bleeding disorders, higher plasma levels of VWF are often associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases. Herein, the disease symptoms are attributed to the inflammatory response of the activated endothelium and share high similarities to the reaction of the host vasculature to systemic infections caused by pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The bacteria recruit circulating VWF, and by binding to immobilized VWF on activated endothelial cells in blood flow, they interfere with the physiological functions of VWF, including platelet recruitment and coagulation. Several bacterial VWF binding proteins have been identified and further characterized by biochemical analyses. Moreover, the development of a combination of sophisticated cell culture systems simulating shear stress levels of the blood flow with microscopic visualization also provided valuable insights into the interaction mechanism between bacteria and VWF-strings. In vivo studies using mouse models of bacterial infection and zebrafish larvae provided evidence that the interaction between bacteria and VWF promotes bacterial attachment, coagulation, and thrombus formation, and thereby contributes to the pathophysiology of severe infectious diseases such as infective endocarditis and bacterial sepsis. This mini-review summarizes the current knowledge of the interaction between bacteria and the mechano-responsive VWF, and corresponding pathophysiological disease symptoms.
    • Importance of flagella in acute and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

      Lorenz, Anne; Preuße, Matthias; Bruchmann, Sebastian; Pawar, Vinay; Grahl, Nora; Pils, Marina C; Nolan, Laura M; Filloux, Alain; Weiss, Siegfried; Häussler, Susanne; et al. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2018-11-08)
      Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an environmental microorganism and a causative agent of diverse acute and chronic, biofilm-associated infections. Advancing research-based knowledge on its adaptation to conditions within the human host is bound to reveal novel strategies and targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we investigated the traits that P. aeruginosa PA14 as well as a virulence attenuated ΔlasR mutant need to survive in selected murine infection models. Experimentally, the genetic programs that the bacteria use to adapt to biofilm-associated versus acute infections were dissected by passaging transposon mutant libraries through mouse lungs (acute) or mouse tumours (biofilm-infection). Adaptive metabolic changes of P. aeruginosa were generally required during both infection processes. Counter-selection against flagella expression was observed during acute lung infections. Obviously, avoidance of flagella-mediated activation of host immunity is advantageous for the wildtype bacteria. For the ΔlasR mutant, loss of flagella did not confer a selective advantage. Apparently, other pathogenesis mechanisms are active in this virulence attenuated strain. In contrast, the infective process of P. aeruginosa in the chronic biofilm model apparently required expression of flagellin. Together, our findings imply that the host immune reactions against the infectious agent are very decisive for acuteness and duration of the infectious disease. They direct disease outcome.
    • [Individualized infection medicine : Challenges and opportunities].

      Debarry, Jennifer; Heinz, D; Manns, M P; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017-07)
    • Induced B Cell Development in Adult Mice.

      Brennecke, Anne-Margarete; Düber, Sandra; Roy, Bishnudeo; Thomsen, Irene; Garbe, Annette I; Klawonn, Frank; Pabst, Oliver; Kretschmer, Karsten; Weiss, Siegfried; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-01-01)
      We employed the B-Indu-Rag1 model in which the coding exon of recombination-activating gene 1 (Rag1) is inactivated by inversion. It is flanked by inverted loxP sites. Accordingly, B cell development is stopped at the pro/pre B-I cell precursor stage. A B cell-specific Cre recombinase fused to a mutated estrogen receptor allows the induction of RAG1 function and B cell development by application of Tamoxifen. Since Rag1 function is recovered in a non-self-renewing precursor cell, only single waves of development can be induced. Using this system, we could determine that B cells minimally require 5 days to undergo development from pro/preB-I cells to the large and 6 days to the small preB-II cell stage. First immature transitional (T) 1 and T2 B cells could be detected in the bone marrow at day 6 and day 7, respectively, while their appearance in the spleen took one additional day. We also tested a contribution of adult bone marrow to the pool of B-1 cells. Sublethally irradiated syngeneic WT mice were adoptively transferred with bone marrow of B-Indu-Rag1 mice and B cell development was induced after 6 weeks. A significant portion of donor derived B-1 cells could be detected in such adult mice. Finally, early VH gene usage was tested after induction of B cell development. During the earliest time points the VH genes proximal to D/J were found to be predominantly rearranged. At later time points, the large family of the most distal VH prevailed.