• Unexpected roles for ADH1 and SORD in catalyzing the final step of erythritol biosynthesis.

      Schlicker, Lisa; Szebenyi, Doletha M E; Ortiz, Semira R; Heinz, Alexander; Hiller, Karsten; Field, Martha S; HIRI, Helmholtz-Institut für RNA-basierte Infektionsforschung, Josef-Shneider Strasse 2, 97080 Würzburg, Germany. (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2019-11-01)
      The low-calorie sweetener erythritol is endogenously produced from glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway in humans. Erythritol is of medical interest because elevated plasma levels of this polyol are predictive for visceral adiposity gain and development of type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanisms behind these associations remain unknown because the erythritol biosynthesis pathway, particularly the enzyme catalyzing the final step of erythritol synthesis (reduction of erythrose to erythritol), is not characterized. In this study, we purified two enzymes from rabbit liver capable of catalyzing the conversion of erythrose to erythritol: alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (ADH1) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD). Both recombinant human ADH1 and SORD reduce erythrose to erythritol, using NADPH as a co-factor, and cell culture studies indicate that this activity is primarily NADPH-dependent. We found that ADH1 variants vary markedly in both their affinity for erythrose and their catalytic capacity (turnover number). Interestingly, the recombinant protein produced from the ADH1B2 variant, common in Asian populations, is not active when NADPH is used as a co-factor in vitro We also confirmed SORD contributes to intracellular erythritol production in human A549 lung cancer cells, where ADH1 is minimally expressed. In summary, human ADH1 and SORD catalyze the conversion of erythrose to erythritol, pointing to novel roles for two dehydrogenase proteins in human glucose metabolism that may contribute to individual responses to diet. Proteomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD015178.
    • Unsaturated Fatty Acids Control Biofilm Formation of and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria.

      Yuyama, Kamila Tomoko; Rohde, Manfred; Molinari, Gabriella; Stadler, Marc; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2020-11-08)
      Infections involving biofilms are difficult to treat due to increased resistances against antibiotics and the immune system. Hence, there is an urgent demand for novel drugs against biofilm infections. During our search for novel biofilm inhibitors from fungi, we isolated linoleic acid from the ascomycete Hypoxylon fragiforme which showed biofilm inhibition of several bacteria at sub-MIC concentrations. Many fatty acids possess antimicrobial activities, but their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) are high and reports on biofilm interferences are scarce. We demonstrated that not only linoleic acid but several unsaturated long-chain fatty acids inhibited biofilms at sub-MIC concentrations. The antibiofilm activity exerted by long-chain fatty acids was mainly against Gram-positive bacteria, especially against Staphylococcus aureus. Micrographs of treated S. aureus biofilms revealed a reduction in the extracellular polymeric substances, pointing to a possible mode of action of fatty acids on S. aureus biofilms. The fatty acids had a strong species specificity. Poly-unsaturated fatty acids had higher activities than saturated ones, but no obvious rule could be found for the optimal length and desaturation for maximal activity. As free fatty acids are non-toxic and ubiquitous in food, they may offer a novel tool, especially in combination with antibiotics, for the control of biofilm infections.
    • Variations in microbiota composition of laboratory mice influence Citrobacter rodentium infection via variable short-chain fatty acid production.

      Osbelt, Lisa; Thiemann, Sophie; Smit, Nathiana; Lesker, Till Robin; Schröter, Madita; Gálvez, Eric J C; Schmidt-Hohagen, Kerstin; Pils, Marina C; Mühlen, Sabrina; Dersch, Petra; et al. (PLOS, 2020-03-24)
      The composition of the intestinal microbiota influences the outcome of enteric infections in human and mice. However, the role of specific members and their metabolites contributing to disease severity is largely unknown. Using isogenic mouse lines harboring distinct microbiota communities, we observed highly variable disease kinetics of enteric Citrobacter rodentium colonization after infection. Transfer of communities from susceptible and resistant mice into germ-free mice verified that the varying susceptibilities are determined by microbiota composition. The strongest differences in colonization were observed in the cecum and could be maintained in vitro by coculturing cecal bacteria with C. rodentium. Cohousing of animals as well as the transfer of cultivable bacteria from resistant to susceptible mice led to variable outcomes in the recipient mice. Microbiome analysis revealed that a higher abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria was associated with the resistant phenotype. Quantification of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels before and after infection revealed increased concentrations of acetate, butyrate and propionate in mice with delayed colonization. Addition of physiological concentrations of butyrate, but not of acetate and/or propionate strongly impaired growth of C. rodentium in vitro. In vivo supplementation of susceptible, antibiotic-treated and germ-free mice with butyrate led to the same level of protection, notably only when cecal butyrate concentration reached a concentration higher than 50 nmol/mg indicating a critical threshold for protection. In the recent years, commensal-derived primary and secondary bacterial metabolites emerged as potent modulators of hosts susceptibility to infection. Our results provide evidence that variations in SCFA production in mice fed fibre-rich chow-based diets modulate susceptibility to colonization with Enterobacteriaceae not only in antibiotic-disturbed ecosystems but even in undisturbed microbial communities. These findings emphasise the need for microbiota normalization across laboratory mouse lines for infection experiments with the model-pathogen C. rodentium independent of investigations of diet and antibiotic usage.
    • Varying the sustained release of BMP-2 from chitosan nanogel-functionalized polycaprolactone fiber mats by different polycaprolactone surface modifications.

      Sundermann, Julius; Oehmichen, Sarah; Sydow, Steffen; Burmeister, Laura; Quaas, Bastian; Hänsch, Robert; Rinas, Ursula; Hoffmann, Andrea; Menzel, Henning; Bunjes, Heike; et al. (Wiley and sons, 2020-06-30)
      Polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber mats with different surface modifications were functionalized with a chitosan nanogel coating to attach the growth factor human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). Three different hydrophilic surface modifications were compared with regard to the binding and in vitro release of BMP-2. The type of surface modification and the specific surface area derived from the fiber thickness had an important influence on the degree of protein loading. Coating the PCL fibers with polydopamine resulted in the binding of the largest BMP-2 quantity per surface area. However, most of the binding was irreversible over the investigated period of time, causing a low release in vitro. PCL fiber mats with a chitosan-graft-PCL coating and an additional alginate layer, as well as PCL fiber mats with an air plasma surface modification boundless BMP-2, but the immobilized protein could almost completely be released. With polydopamine and plasma modifications as well as with unmodified PCL, high amounts of BMP-2 could also be attached directly to the surface. Integration of BMP-2 into the chitosan nanogel functionalization considerably increased binding on all hydrophilized surfaces and resulted in a sustained release with an initial burst release of BMP-2 without detectable loss of bioactivity in vitro.
    • Virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens requires lipid homeostasis mediated by the lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol hydrolase AcvB.

      Groenewold, Maike K; Hebecker, Stefanie; Fritz, Christiane; Czolkoss, Simon; Wiesselmann, Milan; Heinz, Dirk W; Jahn, Dieter; Narberhaus, Franz; Aktas, Meriyem; Moser, Jürgen; et al. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2019-01-01)
      Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers oncogenic T-DNA via the type IV secretion system (T4SS) into plants causing tumor formation. The acvB gene encodes a virulence factor of unknown function required for plant transformation. Here we specify AcvB as a periplasmic lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol (L-PG) hydrolase, which modulates L-PG homeostasis. Through functional characterization of recombinant AcvB variants, we showed that the C-terminal domain of AcvB (residues 232-456) is sufficient for full enzymatic activity and defined key residues for catalysis. Absence of the hydrolase resulted in ~10-fold increase in L-PG in Agrobacterium membranes and abolished T-DNA transfer and tumor formation. Overproduction of the L-PG synthase gene (lpiA) in wild-type A. tumefaciens resulted in a similar increase in the L-PG content (~7-fold) and a virulence defect even in the presence of intact AcvB. These results suggest that elevated L-PG amounts (either by overproduction of the synthase or absence of the hydrolase) are responsible for the virulence phenotype. Gradually increasing the L-PG content by complementation with different acvB variants revealed that cellular L-PG levels above 3% of total phospholipids interfere with T-DNA transfer. Cumulatively, this study identified AcvB as a novel virulence factor required for membrane lipid homeostasis and T-DNA transfer.