• Crystal Structure of Dihydro-Heme d Dehydrogenase NirN from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Reveals Amino Acid Residues Essential for Catalysis.

      Klünemann, Thomas; Preuß, Arne; Adamczack, Julia; Rosa, Luis F M; Harnisch, Falk; Layer, Gunhild; Blankenfeldt, Wulf; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Elsevier, 2019-06-04)
      Many bacteria can switch from oxygen to nitrogen oxides, such as nitrate or nitrite, as terminal electron acceptors in their respiratory chain. This process is called "denitrification" and enables biofilm formation of the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, making it more resilient to antibiotics and highly adaptable to different habitats. The reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide is a crucial step during denitrification. It is catalyzed by the homodimeric cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase (NirS), which utilizes the unique isobacteriochlorin heme d1 as its reaction center. Although the reaction mechanism of nitrite reduction is well understood, far less is known about the biosynthesis of heme d1. The last step of its biosynthesis introduces a double bond in a propionate group of the tetrapyrrole to form an acrylate group. This conversion is catalyzed by the dehydrogenase NirN via a unique reaction mechanism. To get a more detailed insight into this reaction, the crystal structures of NirN with and without bound substrate have been determined. Similar to the homodimeric NirS, the monomeric NirN consists of an eight-bladed heme d1-binding β-propeller and a cytochrome c domain, but their relative orientation differs with respect to NirS. His147 coordinates heme d1 at the proximal side, whereas His323, which belongs to a flexible loop, binds at the distal position. Tyr461 and His417 are located next to the hydrogen atoms removed during dehydrogenation, suggesting an important role in catalysis. Activity assays with NirN variants revealed the essentiality of His147, His323 and Tyr461, but not of His417.
    • Crystal structure of NirF: insights into its role in heme d biosynthesis.

      Klünemann, Thomas; NIMTZ, MANFRED; Jänsch, Lothar; Layer, Gunhild; Blankenfeldt, Wulf; HZI, Helmholtz Zentrum für Infektionsforschung, GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Wiley Online Open, 2020-04-07)
      Certain facultative anaerobes such as the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa can respire on nitrate, a process generally known as denitrification. This enables denitrifying bacteria to survive in anoxic environments and contributes, for example, to the formation of biofilm, hence increasing difficulties in eradicating P. aeruginosa infections. A central step in denitrification is the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide by nitrite reductase NirS, an enzyme that requires the unique cofactor heme d1 . While heme d1 biosynthesis is mostly understood, the role of the essential periplasmatic protein NirF in this pathway remains unclear. Here, we have determined crystal structures of NirF and its complex with dihydroheme d1 , the last intermediate of heme d1 biosynthesis. We found that NirF forms a bottom-to-bottom β-propeller homodimer and confirmed this by multi-angle light and small-angle X-ray scattering. The N termini are adjacent to each other and project away from the core structure, which hints at simultaneous membrane anchoring via both N termini. Further, the complex with dihydroheme d1 allowed us to probe the importance of specific residues in the vicinity of the ligand binding site, revealing residues not required for binding or stability of NirF but essential for denitrification in experiments with complemented mutants of a ΔnirF strain of P. aeruginosa. Together, these data suggest that NirF possesses a yet unknown enzymatic activity and is not simply a binding protein of heme d1 derivatives. DATABASE: Structural data are available in PDB database under the accession numbers 6TV2 and 6TV9.