• Crystal structures and protein engineering of three different penicillin G acylases from Gram-positive bacteria with different thermostability.

      Mayer, Janine; Pippel, Jan; Günther, Gabriele; Müller, Carolin; Lauermann, Anna; Knuuti, Tobias; Blankenfeldt, Wulf; Jahn, Dieter; Biedendieck, Rebekka; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Springer, 2019-06-21)
      Penicillin G acylase (PGA) catalyzes the hydrolysis of penicillin G to 6-aminopenicillanic acid and phenylacetic acid, which provides the precursor for most semisynthetic penicillins. Most applications rely on PGAs from Gram-negative bacteria. Here we describe the first three crystal structures for PGAs from Gram-positive Bacilli and their utilization in protein engineering experiments for the manipulation of their thermostability. PGAs from Bacillus megaterium (BmPGA, Tm = 56.0 °C), Bacillus thermotolerans (BtPGA, Tm = 64.5 °C), and Bacillus sp. FJAT-27231 (FJAT-PGA, Tm = 74.3 °C) were recombinantly produced with B. megaterium, secreted, purified to apparent heterogeneity, and crystallized. Structures with resolutions of 2.20 Å (BmPGA), 2.27 Å (BtPGA), and 1.36 Å (FJAT-PGA) were obtained. They revealed high overall similarity, reflecting the high identity of up to approx. 75%. Notably, the active center displays a deletion of more than ten residues with respect to PGAs from Gram-negatives. This enlarges the substrate binding site and may indicate a different substrate spectrum. Based on the structures, ten single-chain FJAT-PGAs carrying artificial linkers were produced. However, in all cases, complete linker cleavage was observed. While thermostability remained in the wild-type range, the enzymatic activity dropped between 30 and 60%. Furthermore, four hybrid PGAs carrying subunits from two different enzymes were successfully produced. Their thermostabilities mostly lay between the values of the two mother enzymes. For one PGA increased, enzyme activity was observed. Overall, the three novel PGA structures combined with initial protein engineering experiments provide the basis for establishment of new PGA-based biotechnological processes.
    • Crystal Structures of R-Type Bacteriocin Sheath and Tube Proteins CD1363 and CD1364 From in the Pre-assembled State.

      Schwemmlein, Nina; Pippel, Jan; Gazdag, Emerich-Mihai; Blankenfeldt, Wulf (2018-01-01)
      iffocins are high-molecular-weight phage tail-like bacteriocins (PTLBs) that some Clostridium difficile strains produce in response to SOS induction. Similar to the related R-type pyocins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, R-type diffocins act as molecular puncture devices that specifically penetrate the cell envelope of other C. difficile strains to dissipate the membrane potential and kill the attacked bacterium. Thus, R-type diffocins constitute potential therapeutic agents to counter C. difficile-associated infections. PTLBs consist of rigid and contractile protein complexes. They are composed of a baseplate, receptor-binding tail fibers and an inner needle-like tube surrounded by a contractile sheath. In the mature particle, the sheath and tube structure form a complex network comprising up to 200 copies of a sheath and a tube protein each. Here, we report the crystal structures together with small angle X-ray scattering data of the sheath and tube proteins CD1363 (39 kDa) and CD1364 (16 kDa) from C. difficile strain CD630 in a monomeric pre-assembly form at 1.9 and 1.5 Å resolution, respectively. The tube protein CD1364 displays a compact fold and shares highest structural similarity with a tube protein from Bacillus subtilis but is remarkably different from that of the R-type pyocin from P. aeruginosa. The structure of the R-type diffocin sheath protein, on the other hand, is highly conserved. It contains two domains, whereas related members such as bacteriophage tail sheath proteins comprise up to four, indicating that R-type PTLBs may represent the minimal protein required for formation of a complete sheath structure. Comparison of CD1363 and CD1364 with structures of PTLBs and related assemblies suggests that several conformational changes are required to form complete assemblies. In the sheath, rearrangement of the flexible N- and C-terminus enables extensive interactions between the other subunits, whereas for the tube, such contacts are primarily established by mobile α-helices. Together, our results combined with information from structures of homologous assemblies allow constructing a preliminary model of the sheath and tube assembly from R-type diffocin.
    • Exchange of amino acids in the H1-haemagglutinin to H3 residues is required for efficient influenza A virus replication and pathology in Tmprss2 knock-out mice.

      Lambertz, Ruth L O; Pippel, Jan; Gerhauser, Ingo; Kollmus, Heike; Anhlan, Darisuren; Hrincius, Eike R; Krausze, Joern; Kühn, Nora; Schughart, Klaus; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-09-01)
      The haemagglutinin (HA) of H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A virus (IAV) subtypes has to be activated by host proteases. Previous studies showed that H1N1 virus cannot replicate efficiently in Tmprss2/ knock-out mice whereas H3N2 viruses are able to replicate to the same levels in Tmprss2/ as in wild type (WT) mice. Here, we investigated the sequence requirements for the HA molecule that allow IAV to replicate efficiently in the absence of TMPRSS2. We showed that replacement of the H3 for the H1-loop sequence (amino acids 320 to 329, at the C-terminus of HA1) was not sufficient for equal levels of virus replication or severe pathology in Tmprss2/ knock-out mice compared to WT mice. However, exchange of a distant amino acid from H1 to H3 sequence (E31D) in addition to the HA-loop substitution resulted in virus replication in Tmprss2/ knockout mice that was comparable to WT mice. The higher virus replication and lung damage was associated with increased epithelial damage and higher mortality. Our results provide further evidence and insights into host proteases as a promising target for therapeutic intervention of IAV infections.
    • Molecular Mechanisms of Vaspin Action - From Adipose Tissue to Skin and Bone, from Blood Vessels to the Brain.

      Weiner, Juliane; Zieger, Konstanze; Pippel, Jan; Heiker, John T; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Springer, 2019-01-01)
      Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) or SERPINA12 according to the serpin nomenclature was identified together with other genes and gene products that were specifically expressed or overexpressed in the intra-abdominal or visceral adipose tissue (AT) of the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rat. These rats spontaneously develop visceral obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and -glycemia, as well as hypertension and thus represent a well suited animal model of obesity and related metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes.The follow-up study reporting the cloning, expression and functional characterization of vaspin suggested the great and promising potential of this molecule to counteract obesity induced insulin resistance and inflammation and has since initiated over 300 publications, clinical and experimental, that have contributed to uncover the multifaceted functions and molecular mechanisms of vaspin action not only in the adipose, but in many different cells, tissues and organs. This review will give an update on mechanistic and structural aspects of vaspin with a focus on its serpin function, the physiology and regulation of vaspin expression, and will summarize the latest on vaspin function in various tissues such as the different adipose tissue depots as well as the vasculature, skin, bone and the brain.
    • NAD(H)-mediated tetramerization controls the activity of phospholipase PlaB.

      Diwo, Maurice; Michel, Wiebke; Aurass, Philipp; Kuhle-Keindorf, Katja; Pippel, Jan; Krausze, Joern; Wamp, Sabrina; Lang, Christina; Blankenfeldt, Wulf; Flieger, Antje; et al. (National Academy of Sciences, 2021-06-01)
      The virulence factor PlaB promotes lung colonization, tissue destruction, and intracellular replication of Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. It is a highly active phospholipase exposed at the bacterial surface and shows an extraordinary activation mechanism by tetramer deoligomerization. To unravel the molecular basis for enzyme activation and localization, we determined the crystal structure of PlaB in its tetrameric form. We found that the tetramer is a dimer of identical dimers, and a monomer consists of an N-terminal α/β-hydrolase domain expanded by two noncanonical two-stranded β-sheets, β-6/β-7 and β-9/β-10. The C-terminal domain reveals a fold displaying a bilobed β-sandwich with a hook structure required for dimer formation and structural complementation of the enzymatic domain in the neighboring monomer. This highlights the dimer as the active form. Δβ-9/β-10 mutants showed a decrease in the tetrameric fraction and altered activity profiles. The variant also revealed restricted binding to membranes resulting in mislocalization and bacterial lysis. Unexpectedly, we observed eight NAD(H) molecules at the dimer/dimer interface, suggesting that these molecules stabilize the tetramer and hence lead to enzyme inactivation. Indeed, addition of NAD(H) increased the fraction of the tetramer and concomitantly reduced activity. Together, these data reveal structural elements and an unprecedented NAD(H)-mediated tetramerization mechanism required for spatial and enzymatic control of a phospholipase virulence factor. The allosteric regulatory process identified here is suited to fine tune PlaB in a way that protects Legionella pneumophila from self-inflicted lysis while ensuring its activity at the pathogen-host interface.