• The adjuvant effect of TLR agonists on CD4(+) effector T cells is under the indirect control of regulatory T cells.

      Olivier, Aurélie; Sainz-Perez, Alexander; Dong, Hui; Sparwasser, Tim; Majlessi, Laleh; Leclerc, Claude; Department of Immunology, Paris, France. (2011-08)
      TLR agonists have been suggested to directly impact Tregs, thereby enhancing or reversing their suppressive function. Here, in order to select TLR agonists leading to potent effector T-cell responses, while minimizing Treg inhibitory function, we used a model antigen, covalently linked to an inert delivery system, combined with a large panel of TLR agonists, for the immunization of mice with an attenuated/depleted or intact Treg subset. We observed that the negative modulation of effector CD4(+) T cells exerted by Tregs cannot be circumvented, whatever the TLR agonist used as adjuvant. To better understand the impact of TLR agonists on Tregs, we investigated (i) the TLR expression profile of highly purified CD4(+) Foxp3(+) Tregs, at steady state or subsequent to in vivo activation by TLR agonists and (ii) the Treg phenotype after in vivo and in vitro activation by TLR agonists. Our results demonstrate that TLR agonists, as single signal inducers, are not able to directly activate Tregs. The phenotypic Treg activation observed in vivo, following TLR administration, does not result from cross-talk with conventional T cells but is rather a consequence of the interaction with other immune cell type(s).
    • Langerhans cells protect from allergic contact dermatitis in mice by tolerizing CD8(+) T cells and activating Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells.

      Gomez de Agüero, Mercedes; Vocanson, Marc; Hacini-Rachinel, Fériel; Taillardet, Morgan; Sparwasser, Tim; Kissenpfennig, Adrien; Malissen, Bernard; Kaiserlian, Dominique; Dubois, Bertrand; INSERM, U851, Lyon, France. (2012-05-01)
      Allergic contact dermatitis is the most frequent occupational disease in industrialized countries. It is caused by CD8(+) T cell-mediated contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reactions triggered at the site of contact by a variety of chemicals, also known as weak haptens, present in fragrances, dyes, metals, preservatives, and drugs. Despite the myriad of potentially allergenic substances that can penetrate the skin, sensitization is relatively rare and immune tolerance to the substance is often induced by as yet poorly understood mechanisms. Here we show, using the innocuous chemical 2,4-dinitrothiocyanobenzene (DNTB), that cutaneous immune tolerance in mice critically depends on epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), which capture DNTB and migrate to lymph nodes for direct presentation to CD8(+) T cells. Depletion and adoptive transfer experiments revealed that LCs conferred protection from development of CHS by a mechanism involving both anergy and deletion of allergen-specific CD8(+) T cells and activation of a population of T cells identified as ICOS(+)CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs. Our findings highlight the critical role of LCs in tolerance induction in mice to the prototype innocuous hapten DNTB and suggest that strategies targeting LCs might be valuable for prevention of cutaneous allergy.
    • Mouse cytomegalovirus infection overrules T regulatory cell suppression on natural killer cells.

      Lindenberg, Marc; Solmaz, Gulhas; Puttur, Franz; Sparwasser, Tim; TWINCORE, Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research GmbH, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 3-7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (2014)
      Cytomegalovirus establishes lifelong persistency in the host and leads to life threatening situations in immunocompromised patients. FoxP3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) critically control and suppress innate and adaptive immune responses. However, their specific role during MCMV infection, especially pertaining to their interaction with NK cells, remains incompletely defined.
    • Neuropilin 1 deficiency on CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells impairs mouse melanoma growth.

      Hansen, Wiebke; Hutzler, Marina; Abel, Simone; Alter, Christina; Stockmann, Christian; Kliche, Stefanie; Albert, Juliane; Sparwasser, Tim; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Westendorf, Astrid M; et al. (2012-10-22)
      Infiltration of Foxp3(+) regulatory T (T reg) cells is considered to be a critical step during tumor development and progression. T reg cells supposedly suppress locally an effective anti-tumor immune response within tumor tissues, although the precise mechanism by which T reg cells infiltrate the tumor is still unclear. We provide evidence that Neuropilin 1 (Nrp-1), highly expressed by Foxp3(+) T reg cells, regulates the immunological anti-tumor control by guiding T reg cells into the tumor in response to tumor-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We demonstrate for the first time that T cell-specific ablation of Nrp-1 expression results in a significant breakdown in tumor immune escape in various transplantation models and in a spontaneous, endogenously driven melanoma model associated with strongly reduced tumor growth and prolonged tumor-free survival. Strikingly, numbers of tumor-infiltrating Foxp3(+) T reg cells were significantly reduced accompanied by enhanced activation of CD8(+) T cells within tumors of T cell-specific Nrp-1-deficient mice. This phenotype can be reversed by adoptive transfer of Nrp-1(+) T reg cells from wild-type mice. Thus, our data strongly suggest that Nrp-1 acts as a key mediator of Foxp3(+) T reg cell infiltration into the tumor site resulting in a dampened anti-tumor immune response and enhanced tumor progression.
    • Regulatory T cells facilitate the nuclear accumulation of inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) and suppress nuclear factor of activated T cell c1 (NFATc1).

      Vaeth, Martin; Gogishvili, Tea; Bopp, Tobias; Klein, Matthias; Berberich-Siebelt, Friederike; Gattenloehner, Stefan; Avots, Andris; Sparwasser, Tim; Grebe, Nadine; Schmitt, Edgar; et al. (2011-02-08)
      Inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) is a transcriptional repressor, which, because of alternate promoter use, is generated from the 3' region of the cAMP response modulator (Crem) gene. Its expression and nuclear occurrence are elevated by high cAMP levels in naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTregs). Using two mouse models, we demonstrate that nTregs control the cellular localization of ICER/CREM, and thereby inhibit IL-2 synthesis in conventional CD4(+) T cells. Ablation of nTregs in depletion of regulatory T-cell (DEREG) mice resulted in cytosolic localization of ICER/CREM and increased IL-2 synthesis upon stimulation. Direct contacts between nTregs and conventional CD4(+) T cells led to nuclear accumulation of ICER/CREM and suppression of IL-2 synthesis on administration of CD28 superagonistic (CD28SA) Ab. In a similar way, nTregs communicated with B cells and induced the cAMP-driven nuclear localization of ICER/CREM. High levels of ICER suppressed the induction of nuclear factor of activated T cell c1 (Nfatc1) gene in T cells whose inducible Nfatc1 P1 promoter bears two highly conserved cAMP-responsive elements to which ICER/CREM can bind. These findings suggest that nTregs suppress T-cell responses by the cAMP-dependent nuclear accumulation of ICER/CREM and inhibition of NFATc1 and IL-2 induction.
    • TLR3 is required for survival following Coxsackievirus B3 infection by driving T lymphocyte activation and polarization: The role of dendritic cells.

      Sesti-Costa, Renata; Françozo, Marcela Cristina Santiago; Silva, Grace Kelly; Proenca-Modena, José Luiz; Silva, João Santana; Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH, Feodor-Lynen-Str.7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (2017)
      Type B coxsackievirus (CVB) is a common cause of acute and chronic myocarditis, meningitis and pancreatitis, often leading to heart failure and pancreatic deficiency. The polarization of CD4+ T lymphocytes and their cytokine milieu are key factors in the outcome of CVB-induced diseases. Thus, sensing the virus and driving the adaptive immune response are essential for the establishment of a protective immune response. TLR3 is a crucial virus recognition receptor that confers the host with resistance to CVB infection. In the current study, we found that TLR3 expression in dendritic cells plays a role in their activation upon CVB3 infection in vitro, as TLR3-deficient dendritic cells up-regulate CD80 and CD86 to a less degree than WT cells. Instead, they up-regulated the inhibitory molecule PD-L1 and secreted considerably lower levels of TNF-α and IL-10 and a higher level of IL-23. T lymphocyte proliferation in co-culture with CVB3-infected dendritic cells was increased by TLR3-expressing DCs and other cells. Furthermore, in the absence of TLR3, the T lymphocyte response was shifted toward a Th17 profile, which was previously reported to be deleterious for the host. TLR3-deficient mice were very susceptible to CVB3 infection, with increased pancreatic injury and extensive inflammatory infiltrate in the heart that was associated with uncontrolled viral replication. Adoptive transfer of TLR3+ dendritic cells slightly improved the survival of TLR-deficient mice following CVB3 infection. Therefore, our findings highlight the importance of TLR3 signaling in DCs and in other cells to induce activation and polarization of the CD4+ T lymphocyte response toward a Th1 profile and consequently for a better outcome of CVB3 infection. These data provide new insight into the immune-mediated mechanisms by which CVBs are recognized and cleared in order to prevent the development of myocarditis and pancreatitis and may contribute to the design of therapies for enteroviral infections.