Recent Submissions

  • Untargeted LC-MS Metabolomics Differentiates Between Virulent and Avirulent Clinical Strains of .

    Depke, Tobias; Thöming, Janne Gesine; Kordes, Adrian; Häussler, Susanne; Brönstrup, Mark; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2020-07-13)
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a facultative pathogen that can cause, inter alia, acute or chronic pneumonia in predisposed individuals. The gram-negative bacterium displays considerable genomic and phenotypic diversity that is also shaped by small molecule secondary metabolites. The discrimination of virulence phenotypes is highly relevant to the diagnosis and prognosis of P. aeruginosa infections. In order to discover small molecule metabolites that distinguish different virulence phenotypes of P. aeruginosa, 35 clinical strains were cultivated under standard conditions, characterized in terms of virulence and biofilm phenotype, and their metabolomes were investigated by untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The data was both mined for individual candidate markers as well as used to construct statistical models to infer the virulence phenotype from metabolomics data. We found that clinical strains that differed in their virulence and biofilm phenotype also had pronounced divergence in their metabolomes, as underlined by 332 features that were significantly differentially abundant with fold changes greater than 1.5 in both directions. Important virulence-associated secondary metabolites like rhamnolipids, alkyl quinolones or phenazines were found to be strongly upregulated in virulent strains. In contrast, we observed little change in primary metabolism. A hitherto novel cationic metabolite with a sum formula of C12H15N2 could be identified as a candidate biomarker. A random forest model was able to classify strains according to their virulence and biofilm phenotype with an area under the Receiver Operation Characteristics curve of 0.84. These findings demonstrate that untargeted metabolomics is a valuable tool to characterize P. aeruginosa virulence, and to explore interrelations between clinically important phenotypic traits and the bacterial metabolome.
  • Impact of dental cement on the peri-implant biofilm-microbial comparison of two different cements in an in vivo observational study.

    Korsch, Michael; Marten, Silke-Mareike; Walther, Winfried; Vital, Marius; Pieper, Dietmar H; Dötsch, Andreas; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Wiley, 2018-08-20)
    Background: The type of cement used in cemented fixed implant-supported restorations influences formation of undetected excess cement and composition of the peri-implant biofilm. Excess cement and dysbiosis of the biofilm involve the risk of peri-implant inflammation. Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of two different cements on the peri-implant biofilm and inflammation. Materials and methods: In an observational study, the suprastructures of 34 patients with cemented fixed implant-supported restorations were revised. In 20 patients, a methacrylate cement (Premier Implant cement [PIC]) and in 14 patients, a zinc oxide eugenol cement (Temp Bond [TB]) were used. After revision, TB was used for recementation. During revision and follow-up after 1 year, microbial samples were obtained. Results: Excess cement was found in 12 (60%) of the 20 patients with PIC. Suppuration was observed in two (25%) implants with PIC without excess cement (PIC-) and in all 12 (100%) implants with PIC and excess cement (PIC+). Implants cemented with TB had neither excess cement nor suppuration. The taxonomic analysis of the microbial samples revealed an accumulation of periodontal pathogens in the PIC patients independent of the presence of excess cement. Significantly, fewer oral pathogens occurred in patients with TB compared to patients with PIC. TB was used in all cases (PIC and TB) for recementation. In the follow-up check, suppuration was not found around any of the implants with PIC-, only around one implant with PIC+ and around one implant with TB. Bacterial species associated with severe periodontal infections that were abundant in PIC- and PIC+ samples before the revision were reduced after 1 year to levels found in the TB samples. Conclusions: The revision and recementation with TB had a positive effect on the peri-implant biofilm in cases with PIC. The cementation of suprastructures on implants with TB is an alternative method to be considered.
  • Toward Biorecycling: Isolation of a Soil Bacterium That Grows on a Polyurethane Oligomer and Monomer.

    Espinosa, María José Cárdenas; Blanco, Andrea Colina; Schmidgall, Tabea; Atanasoff-Kardjalieff, Anna Katharina; Kappelmeyer, Uwe; Tischler, Dirk; Pieper, Dietmar H; Heipieper, Hermann J; Eberlein, Christian; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Frontiers, 2020-03-27)
    The fate of plastic waste and a sustainable use of synthetic polymers is one of the major challenges of the twenty first century. Waste valorization strategies can contribute to the solution of this problem. Besides chemical recycling, biological degradation could be a promising tool. Among the high diversity of synthetic polymers, polyurethanes are widely used as foams and insulation materials. In order to examine bacterial biodegradability of polyurethanes, a soil bacterium was isolated from a site rich in brittle plastic waste. The strain, identified as Pseudomonas sp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and membrane fatty acid profile, was able to grow on a PU-diol solution, a polyurethane oligomer, as the sole source of carbon and energy. In addition, the strain was able to use 2,4-diaminotoluene, a common precursor and putative degradation intermediate of polyurethanes, respectively, as sole source of energy, carbon, and nitrogen. Whole genome sequencing of the strain revealed the presence of numerus catabolic genes for aromatic compounds. Growth on potential intermediates of 2,4-diaminotoluene degradation, other aromatic growth substrates and a comparison with a protein data base of oxygenases present in the genome, led to the proposal of a degradation pathway.
  • Polyhalonitrobutadienes as Versatile Building Blocks for the Biotargeted Synthesis of Substituted N-Heterocyclic Compounds.

    Zapol'skii, Viktor A; Bilitewski, Ursula; Kupiec, Sören R; Ramming, Isabell; Kaufmann, Dieter E; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2020-06-21)
    Substituted nitrogen heterocycles are structural key units in many important pharmaceuticals. A new synthetic approach towards heterocyclic compounds displaying antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus or cytotoxic activity has been developed. The selective synthesis of a series of 64 new N-heterocycles from the three nitrobutadienes 2-nitroperchloro-1,3-butadiene, 4-bromotetrachloro-2-nitro-1,3-butadiene and (Z)-1,1,4-trichloro-2,4-dinitrobuta-1,3-diene proved feasible. Their reactions with N-, O- and S-nucleophiles provide rapid access to push-pull substituted benzoxazolines, benzimidazolines, imidazolidines, thiazolidinones, pyrazoles, pyrimidines, pyridopyrimidines, benzoquinolines, isothiazoles, dihydroisoxazoles, and thiophenes with unique substitution patterns. Antibacterial activities of 64 synthesized compounds were examined. Additionally, seven compounds (thiazolidinone, nitropyrimidine, indole, pyridopyrimidine, and thiophene derivatives) exhibited a significant cytotoxicity with IC50-values from 1.05 to 20.1 µM. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that polyhalonitrobutadienes have an interesting potential as structural backbones for a variety of highly functionalized, pharmaceutically active heterocycles.
  • Microbial Community Structure Along a Horizontal Oxygen Gradient in a Costa Rican Volcanic Influenced Acid Rock Drainage System.

    Arce-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Puente-Sánchez, Fernando; Avendaño, Roberto; Libby, Eduardo; Mora-Amador, Raúl; Rojas-Jimenez, Keilor; Martínez, María; Pieper, Dietmar H; Chavarría, Max; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Springer Nature, 2020-06-22)
    We describe the geochemistry and microbial diversity of a pristine environment that resembles an acid rock drainage (ARD) but it is actually the result of hydrothermal and volcanic influences. We designate this environment, and other comparable sites, as volcanic influenced acid rock drainage (VARD) systems. The metal content and sulfuric acid in this ecosystem stem from the volcanic milieu and not from the product of pyrite oxidation. Based on the analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we report the microbial community structure in the pristine San Cayetano Costa Rican VARD environment (pH = 2.94-3.06, sulfate ~ 0.87-1.19 g L-1, iron ~ 35-61 mg L-1 (waters), and ~ 8-293 g kg-1 (sediments)). San Cayetano was found to be dominated by microorganisms involved in the geochemical cycling of iron, sulfur, and nitrogen; however, the identity and abundance of the species changed with the oxygen content (0.40-6.06 mg L-1) along the river course. The hypoxic source of San Cayetano is dominated by a putative anaerobic sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacterium. Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus or Sulfobacillus are found in smaller proportions with respect to typical ARD. In the oxic downstream, we identified aerobic iron-oxidizers (Leptospirillum, Acidithrix, Ferrovum) and heterotrophic bacteria (Burkholderiaceae bacterium, Trichococcus, Acidocella). Thermoplasmatales archaea closely related to environmental phylotypes found in other ARD niches were also observed throughout the entire ecosystem. Overall, our study shows the differences and similarities in the diversity and distribution of the microbial communities between an ARD and a VARD system at the source and along the oxygen gradient that establishes on the course of the river.
  • Filovirus antiviral activity of cationic amphiphilic drugs is associated with lipophilicity and ability to induce phospholipidosis.

    Gunesch, Antonia P; Zapatero-Belinchon, Francisco J; Pinkert, Lukas; Steinmann, Eike; Manns, Michael P; Schneider, Gisbert; Pietschmann, Thomas; Brönstrup, Mark; von Hahn, Thomas; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany.; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH,Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (ASM, 2020-06-08)
    Several cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) have been found to inhibit cell entry of filoviruses and other enveloped viruses. Structurally unrelated CADs may have antiviral activity, yet the underlying common mechanism and structure-activity relationship are incompletely understood.We aimed to understand how widespread antiviral activity is among CADs and which structural and physico-chemical properties are linked to entry inhibition.We measured inhibition of Marburg virus pseudoparticle (MARVpp) cell entry by 45 heterogeneous and mostly FDA-approved CADs and cytotoxicity in EA.hy926 cells. We analysed correlation of antiviral activity with four chemical properties: pKa, ClogP, molecular weight and distance between the basic group and hydrophobic ring structures. Additionally, we quantified drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) of a CAD subset by flow cytometry. Structurally similar compounds (derivatives) and those with similar chemical properties but unrelated structure (analogues) to strong inhibitors were obtained by two in silico similarity search approaches and tested for antiviral activity. Overall 11 out of 45 (24 %) CADs inhibited MARVpp by 40 % or more. The strongest antiviral compounds were dronedarone, triparanol and quinacrine. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed highly significant correlations between antiviral activity, hydrophobicity (ClogP>4), and DIPL. Moreover, pKa and intra-molecular distance between hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties correlated with antiviral activity, but to a lesser extent. We also showed that in contrast to analogues, derivatives had similar antiviral activity as the seed compound dronedarone. Overall, one quarter of CADs inhibits MARVpp entry in vitro and antiviral activity of CADs mostly relies on their hydrophobicity, yet is promoted by the individual structure.
  • Expansion of functional personalized cells with specific transgene combinations.

    Lipps, Christoph; Klein, Franziska; Wahlicht, Tom; Seiffert, Virginia; Butueva, Milada; Zauers, Jeannette; Truschel, Theresa; Luckner, Martin; Köster, Mario; MacLeod, Roderick; et al. (Springer Nature, 2018-03-08)
    Fundamental research and drug development for personalized medicine necessitates cell cultures from defined genetic backgrounds. However, providing sufficient numbers of authentic cells from individuals poses a challenge. Here, we present a new strategy for rapid cell expansion that overcomes current limitations. Using a small gene library, we expanded primary cells from different tissues, donors, and species. Cell-type-specific regimens that allow the reproducible creation of cell lines were identified. In depth characterization of a series of endothelial and hepatocytic cell lines confirmed phenotypic stability and functionality. Applying this technology enables rapid, efficient, and reliable production of unlimited numbers of personalized cells. As such, these cell systems support mechanistic studies, epidemiological research, and tailored drug development.
  • Crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 main protease provides a basis for design of improved α-ketoamide inhibitors.

    Zhang, Linlin; Lin, Daizong; Sun, Xinyuanyuan; Curth, Ute; Drosten, Christian; Sauerhering, Lucie; Becker, Stephan; Rox, Katharina; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (AAAS, 2020-03-20)
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global health emergency. An attractive drug target among coronaviruses is the main protease (Mpro, also called 3CLpro) because of its essential role in processing the polyproteins that are translated from the viral RNA. We report the x-ray structures of the unliganded SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and its complex with an α-ketoamide inhibitor. This was derived from a previously designed inhibitor but with the P3-P2 amide bond incorporated into a pyridone ring to enhance the half-life of the compound in plasma. On the basis of the unliganded structure, we developed the lead compound into a potent inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro The pharmacokinetic characterization of the optimized inhibitor reveals a pronounced lung tropism and suitability for administration by the inhalative route.
  • Labyrinthopeptins as virolytic inhibitors of respiratory syncytial virus cell entry.

    Blockus, Sebastian; Sake, Svenja M; Wetzke, Martin; Grethe, Christina; Graalmann, Theresa; Pils, Marina; Le Goffic, Ronan; Galloux, Marie; Prochnow, Hans; Rox, Katharina; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-03-18)
    Acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are associated with a severe disease burden among infants and elderly patients. Treatment options are limited. While numerous drug candidates with different viral targets are under development, the utility of RSV entry inhibitors is challenged by a low resistance barrier and by single mutations causing cross-resistance against a wide spectrum of fusion inhibitor chemotypes. We developed a cell-based screening assay for discovery of compounds inhibiting infection with primary RSV isolates. Using this system, we identified labyrinthopeptin A1 and A2 (Laby A1/A2), lantibiotics isolated from Actinomadura namibiensis, as effective RSV cell entry inhibitors with IC50s of 0.39 μM and 4.97 μM, respectively, and with favourable therapeutic index (>200 and > 20, respectively). Both molecules were active against multiple RSV strains including primary isolates and their antiviral activity against RSV was confirmed in primary human airway cells ex vivo and a murine model in vivo. Laby A1/A2 were antiviral in prophylactic and therapeutic treatment regimens and displayed synergistic activity when applied in combination with each other. Mechanistic studies showed that Laby A1/A2 exert virolytic activity likely by binding to phosphatidylethanolamine moieties within the viral membrane and by disrupting virus particle membrane integrity. Probably due to its specific mode of action, Laby A1/A2 antiviral activity was not affected by common resistance mutations to known RSV entry inhibitors. Taken together, Laby A1/A2 represent promising candidates for development as RSV inhibitors. Moreover, the cell-based screening system with primary RSV isolates described here should be useful to identify further antiviral agents.
  • Inhibition of Respiration of Candida albicans by Small Molecules Increases Phagocytosis Efficacy by Macrophages.

    Cui, Shuna; Li, Minghui; Hassan, Rabeay Y A; Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Wang, Junsong; Bilitewski, Ursula; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstraße 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (American Society of Microbiology, 2020-04-15)
    Candida albicans adapts to various conditions in different body niches by regulating gene expression, protein synthesis, and metabolic pathways. These adaptive reactions not only allow survival but also influence the interaction with host cells, which is governed by the composition and structure of the fungal cell wall. Numerous studies had shown linkages between mitochondrial functionality, cell wall integrity and structure, and pathogenicity. Thus, we decided to inhibit single complexes of the respiratory chain of C. albicans and to analyze the resultant interaction with macrophages via their phagocytic activity. Remarkably, inhibition of the fungal bc1 complex by antimycin A increased phagocytosis, which correlated with an increased accessibility of β-glucans. To contribute to mechanistic insights, we performed metabolic studies, which highlighted significant changes in the abundance of constituents of the plasma membrane. Collectively, our results reinforce the strong linkage between fungal energy metabolism and other components of fungal physiology, which also determine the vulnerability to immune defense reactions.IMPORTANCE The yeast Candida albicans is one of the major fungal human pathogens, for which new therapeutic approaches are required. We aimed at enhancements of the phagocytosis efficacy of macrophages by targeting the cell wall structure of C. albicans, as the coverage of the β-glucan layer by mannans is one of the immune escape mechanisms of the fungus. We unambiguously show that inhibition of the fungal bc1 complex correlates with increased accessibilities of β-glucans and improved phagocytosis efficiency. Metabolic studies proved not only the known direct effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and fermentative pathways but also the clear downregulation of the ergosterol pathway and upregulation of unsaturated fatty acids. The changed composition of the plasma membrane could also influence the interaction with the overlying cell wall. Thus, our work highlights the far-reaching relevance of energy metabolism, indirectly also for host-pathogen interactions, without affecting viability.
  • A NanoLuc luciferase-based assay enabling the real-time analysis of protein secretion and injection by bacterial type III secretion systems.

    Westerhausen, Sibel; Nowak, Melanie; Torres-Vargas, Claudia E; Bilitewski, Ursula; Bohn, Erwin; Grin, Iwan; Wagner, Samuel; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Wiley, 2020-02-18)
    The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of secretion through bacterial protein secretion systems is impeded by a shortage of assays to quantitatively assess secretion kinetics. Also the analysis of the biological role of these secretion systems as well as the identification of inhibitors targeting these systems would greatly benefit from the availability of a simple, quick and quantitative assay to monitor principle secretion and injection into host cells. Here, we present a versatile solution to this need, utilizing the small and very bright NanoLuc luciferase to assess the function of the type III secretion system encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 1. Type III secretion substrate-NanoLuc fusions are readily secreted into the culture supernatant, where they can be quantified by luminometry after removal of bacteria. The NanoLuc-based secretion assay features a very high signal-to-noise ratio and sensitivity down to the nanolitre scale. The assay enables monitoring of secretion kinetics and is adaptable to a high throughput screening format in 384-well microplates. We further developed a split NanoLuc-based assay that enables the real-time monitoring of type III secretion-dependent injection of effector-HiBiT fusions into host cells stably expressing the complementing NanoLuc-LgBiT.
  • Potential TMA-Producing Bacteria Are Ubiquitously Found in Mammalia.

    Rath, Silke; Rud, Tatjana; Pieper, Dietmar H; Vital, Marius; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Frontiers, 2019-01-01)
    Human gut bacteria metabolize dietary components such as choline and carnitine to trimethylamine (TMA) that is subsequently oxidized to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) by hepatic enzymes. Increased plasma levels of TMAO are associated with the development of cardiovascular and renal disease. In this study, we applied gene-targeted assays in order to quantify (qPCR) and characterize (MiSeq) bacterial genes encoding enzymes responsible for TMA production, namely choline-TMA lyase (CutC), carnitine oxygenase (CntA) and betaine reductase (GrdH) in 89 fecal samples derived from various mammals spanning three dietary groups (carnivores, omnivores and herbivores) and four host orders (Carnivora, Primates, Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla). All samples contained potential TMA-producing bacteria, however, at low abundances (<1.2% of total community). The cutC gene was more abundant in omnivores and carnivores compared with herbivores. CntA was almost absent from herbivores and grdH showed lowest average abundance of all three genes. Bacteria harboring cutC and grdH displayed high diversities where sequence types affiliated with various taxa within Firmicutes dominated, whereas cntA comprised sequences primarily linked to Escherichia. Composition of TMA-forming communities was strongly influenced by diet and host taxonomy and despite their high correlation, both factors contributed uniquely to community structure. Furthermore, Random Forest (RF) models could differentiate between groups at high accuracies. This study gives a comprehensive overview of potential TMA-producing bacteria in the mammalian gut demonstrating that both diet and host taxonomy govern their abundance and composition. It highlights the role of functional redundancy sustaining potential TMA formation in distinct gut environments.
  • Discovery of Novel Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen Inhibitors as Antiviral Agents Against Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus.

    Kirsch, Philine; Jakob, Valentin; Elgaher, Walid A M; Walt, Christine; Oberhausen, Kevin; Schulz, Thomas F; Empting, Martin; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany.;HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (American Chemical Society (ACS), 2020-01-24)
    With the aim to develop novel antiviral agents against Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV), we are targeting the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA). This protein plays an important role in viral genome maintenance during latent infection. LANA has the ability to tether the viral genome to the host nucleosomes and, thus, ensures latent persistence of the viral genome in the host cells. By inhibition of the LANA-DNA interaction, we seek to eliminate or reduce the load of the viral DNA in the host. To achieve this goal, we screened our in-house library using a dedicated fluorescence polarization (FP)-based competition assay, which allows for the quantification of LANA-DNA-interaction inhibition by small organic molecules. We successfully identified three different compound classes capable of disrupting this protein-nucleic acid interaction. We characterized these compounds by IC50 dose-response evaluation and confirmed the compound-LANA interaction using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. Furthermore, two of the three hit scaffolds showed only marginal cytotoxicity in two human cell lines. Finally, we conducted STD-NMR competition experiments with our new hit compounds and a previously described fragment-sized inhibitor. Based on these results, future compound linking approaches could serve as a promising strategy for further optimization studies in order to generate highly potent KSHV inhibitors.
  • Cystobactamid 507: Concise Synthesis, Mode of Action and Optimization toward More Potent Antibiotics.

    Elgaher, Walid A M; Hamed, Mostafa M; Baumann, Sascha; Herrmann, Jennifer; Siebenbürger, Lorenz; Krull, Jana; Cirnski, Katarina; Kirschning, Andreas; Brönstrup, Mark; Müller, Rolf; et al. (Wiley-VCH, 2020-01-26)
    Lack of new antibiotics and increasing antimicrobial resistance are the main concerns of healthcare community nowadays, which necessitate the search for novel antibacterial agents. Recently, we discovered the cystobactamids - a novel natural class of antibiotics with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. In this work, we describe a concise total synthesis of cystobactamid 507, the identification of the bioactive conformation using non-covalently bonded rigid analogs, the first structure–activity relationship (SAR) study for cystobactamid 507 leading to new analogs with high metabolic stability, superior topoisomerase IIA inhibition, antibacterial activity and, importantly, stability toward the resistant factor AlbD. Deeper insight into the mode of action revealed that the cystobactamids employ DNA minor groove binding as part of the drug–target interaction without showing significant intercalation. By designing a new analog of cystobactamid 919-2 we finally demonstrated that these findings could be further exploited to obtain more potent hexapeptides against Gram-negative bacteria.
  • Identification of benzene-degrading Proteobacteria in a constructed wetland by employing in situ microcosms and RNA-stable isotope probing.

    Nitz, Henrike; Duarte, Márcia; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar H; Müller, Jochen A; Kästner, Matthias; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Springer, 2019-12-23)
    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are effective ecological remediation technologies for various contaminated water bodies. Here, we queried for benzene-degrading microbes in a horizontal subsurface flow CW with reducing conditions in the pore water and fed with benzene-contaminated groundwater. For identification of relevant microbes, we employed in situ microcosms (BACTRAPs, which are made from granulated activated carbon) coupled with 13C-stable isotope probing and Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. A significant incorporation of 13C was detected in RNA isolated from BACTRAPs loaded with 13C-benzene and exposed in the CW for 28 days. A shorter incubation time did not result in detectable 13C incorporation. After 28 days, members from four genera, namely Dechloromonas, Hydrogenophaga, and Zoogloea from the Betaproteobacteria and Arcobacter from the Epsilonproteobacteria were significantly labeled with 13C and were abundant in the bacterial community on the BACTRAPs. Sequences affiliated to Geobacter were also numerous on the BACTRAPs but apparently those microbes did not metabolize benzene as no 13C label incorporation was detected. Instead, they may have metabolized plant-derived organic compounds while using the BACTRAPs as electron sink. In representative wetland samples, sequences affiliated with Dechloromonas, Zoogloea, and Hydrogenophaga were present at relative proportions of up to a few percent. Sequences affiliated with Arcobacter were present at < 0.01% in wetland samples. In conclusion, we identified microbes of likely significance for benzene degradation in a CW used for remediation of contaminated water.
  • T4SS-dependent TLR5 activation by Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Pachathundikandi, Suneesh Kumar; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Arnold, Isabelle Catherine; Lind, Judith; Neddermann, Matthias; Falkeis-Veits, Christina; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Brönstrup, Mark; Tegge, Werner; Hong, Minsun; et al. (Nature publishing group, 2019-12-16)
    Toll-like receptor TLR5 recognizes a conserved domain, termed D1, that is present in flagellins of several pathogenic bacteria but not in Helicobacter pylori. Highly virulent H. pylori strains possess a type IV secretion system (T4SS) for delivery of virulence factors into gastric epithelial cells. Here, we show that one of the H. pylori T4SS components, protein CagL, can act as a flagellin-independent TLR5 activator. CagL contains a D1-like motif that mediates adherence to TLR5+ epithelial cells, TLR5 activation, and downstream signaling in vitro. TLR5 expression is associated with H. pylori infection and gastric lesions in human biopsies. Using Tlr5-knockout and wild-type mice, we show that TLR5 is important for efficient control of H. pylori infection. Our results indicate that CagL, by activating TLR5, may modulate immune responses to H. pylori.
  • Risk factors and Predictors of Mortality in Streptococcal Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infections: A Multicenter Prospective Study.

    Bruun, Trond; Rath, Eivind; Bruun Madsen, Martin; Oppegaard, Oddvar; Nekludov, Michael; Arnell, Per; Karlsson, Ylva; Babbar, Anshu; Bergey, Francois; Itzek, Andreas; et al. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2020-01-10)
    Background Necrotizing soft-tissue infections (NSTI) are life-threatening conditions often caused by β-hemolytic streptococci, group A streptococcus (GAS) in particular. Optimal treatment is contentious. The INFECT cohort includes the largest set of prospectively enrolled streptococcal NSTI cases to date. Methods From the INFECT cohort of 409 adults admitted with NSTI to five clinical centers in Scandinavia, patients culture-positive for GAS or Streptococcus dysgalactiae (SD) were selected. Risk factors were identified by comparison with a cohort of non-necrotizing streptococcal cellulitis. The impact of baseline factors and treatment on 90-day mortality was explored using Lasso regression. Whole-genome sequencing of bacterial isolates was used for emm typing and virulence gene profiling. Results The 126 GAS NSTI cases and 27 cases caused by SD constituted 31% and 7% of the whole NSTI cohort, respectively. When comparing to non-necrotizing streptococcal cellulitis, streptococcal NSTI was associated to blunt trauma, absence of pre-existing skin lesions, and a lower BMI. Septic shock was significantly more frequent in GAS (65%) compared to SD (41%) and polymicrobial, non-streptococcal NSTI (46%). Age, male sex, septic shock, and no administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) were among factors associated with 90-day mortality. Predominant emm types were emm1, emm3 and emm28 in GAS and stG62647 in SD.
  • Semisynthesis and biological evaluation of amidochelocardin derivatives as broad-spectrum antibiotics.

    Grandclaudon, Charlotte; Birudukota, N V Suryanarayana; Elgaher, Walid A M; Jumde, Ravindra P; Yahiaoui, Samir; Arisetti, Nanaji; Hennessen, Fabienne; Hüttel, Stephan; Stadler, Marc; Herrmann, Jennifer; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-12-20)
    To address the global challenge of emerging antimicrobial resistance, the hitherto most successful strategy to new antibiotics has been the optimization of validated natural products; most of these efforts rely on semisynthesis. Herein, we report the semisynthetic modification of amidochelocardin, an atypical tetracycline obtained via genetic engineering of the chelocardin producer strain. We report modifications at C4, C7, C10 and C11 by the application of methylation, acylation, electrophilic substitution, and oxidative C-C coupling reactions. The antibacterial activity of the reaction products was tested against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. The emerging structure-activity relationships (SARs) revealed that positions C7 and C10 are favorable anchor points for the semisynthesis of optimized derivatives. The observed SAR was different from that known for tetracyclines, which underlines the pronounced differences between the two compound classes.
  • Correlation between immunoglobulin dose administered and plasma neutralization of streptococcal superantigens in patients with necrotizing soft tissue infections.

    Bergsten, Helena; Madsen, Martin Bruun; Bergey, Francois; Hyldegaard, Ole; Skrede, Steinar; Arnell, Per; Oppegaard, Oddvar; Itzek, Andreas; Perner, Anders; Svensson, Mattias; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2020-01-09)
    Analyses of plasma collected pre- and post-administration of intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) from patients with Group A Streptococcus necrotizing soft tissue infections demonstrated a negative correlation between IVIG dose and toxin-triggered T-cell proliferation (r=-0.67, p<0.0001). One 25g-dose IVIG was sufficient to yield patient plasma neutralizing activity against streptococcal superantigens.
  • Importance of superoxide dismutase A and M for protection of Staphylococcus aureus in the oxidative stressful environment of cystic fibrosis airways.

    Treffon, Janina; Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Niemann, Silke; Pieper, Dietmar Helmut; Vogl, Thomas; Roth, Johannes; Kahl, Barbara C; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Wiley, 2020-01-02)
    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the earliest pathogens that persists the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and contributes to increased inflammation and decreased lung function. In contrast to other staphylococci, S. aureus possesses two superoxide dismutases (SODs), SodA and SodM, with SodM being unique to S. aureus. Both SODs arm S. aureus for its fight against oxidative stress, a byproduct of inflammatory reactions. Despite complex investigations it is still unclear, if both enzymes are crucial for the special pathogenicity of S. aureus. To investigate the role of both SODs during staphylococcal persistence in CF airways, we analyzed survival and gene expression of S. aureus CF isolates and laboratory strains in different CF-related in vitro and ex vivo settings. Bacteria located in inflammatory and oxidized CF sputum transcribed high levels of sodA and sodM. Especially expression values of sodM were remarkably higher in CF sputum than in bacterial in vitro cultures. Interestingly, also S. aureus located in airway epithelial cells expressed elevated transcript numbers of both SODs, indicating that S. aureus is exposed to oxidative stress at various sites within CF airways. Both enzymes promoted survival of S. aureus during PMN killing and seem to act compensatory, thereby giving evidence that the interwoven interaction of SodA and SodM contributes to S. aureus virulence and facilitates S. aureus persistence within CF airways.

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