• Single-cell phenotypic characterization of Staphylococcus aureus with fluorescent triazole urea activity-based probes.

      Chen, Linhai; Keller, Laura J; Cordasco, Edward A; Bogyo, Matthew; Lentz, Christian S; HZI, Helmholtz Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig Germany. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2019-02-15)
      Phenotypically distinct cellular (sub)populations are clinically relevant for virulence and antibiotic resistance of a bacterial pathogen, but functionally different cells are usually indistinguishable from each other. Here, we introduce fluorescent activity-based probes as chemical tools for single-cell phenotypic characterization of enzyme activity levels in Staphylococcus aureus. We screened a 1,2,3-triazole urea library to identify selective inhibitors of fluorophosphonate-binding serine hydrolases and lipases in S. aureus and synthesized target-selective activity-based probes. Molecular imaging and activity-based protein profiling studies with these probes revealed a dynamic network within this enzyme family involving compensatory regulation of specific family members and exposed single-cell phenotypic heterogeneity. We propose chemical probe labeling of enzymatic activities as a generalizable method for phenotyping of bacterial cells at the population and single-cell level.