• 14-3-3 proteins are constituents of the insoluble glycoprotein framework of the chlamydomonas cell wall.

      Voigt, Jürgen; Frank, Ronald; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2003-06)
      The cell wall of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii consists predominantly of Hyp-rich glycoproteins, which also occur in the extracellular matrix of multicellular green algae and higher plants. In addition to the Hyp-rich polypeptides, the insoluble glycoprotein framework of the Chlamydomonas cell wall contains minor amounts of 14-3-3 proteins, as revealed by immunochemical studies and mass spectroscopic analysis of tryptic peptides. Polypeptides immunologically related to the 14-3-3 proteins also were found in the culture medium of Chlamydomonas. The levels of two of these 14-3-3-related polypeptides were decreased in the culture medium of the wall-deficient mutant cw-15. These findings indicate that 14-3-3 proteins are involved in the cross-linking of Hyp-rich glycoproteins in the Chlamydomonas cell wall.
    • Archazolid A-15-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and iso-archazolid B: potent V-ATPase inhibitory polyketides from the myxobacteria Cystobacter violaceus and Archangium gephyra.

      Horstmann, Nicole; Essig, Sebastian; Bockelmann, Svenja; Wieczorek, Helmut; Huss, Markus; Sasse, Florenz; Menche, Dirk; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2011-05-27)
      Two structurally novel analogues of the macrolides archazolids A and B, archazolid A-15-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (archazolid E, 5) and iso-archazolid B (archazolid F, 6), were isolated from the myxobacterium Cystobacter violaceus and Archangium gephyra, respectively. Macrolactone 5 represents the first 15-O-glycoside of the archazolids. iso-Archazolid B (6) incorporates a C-3 alkene and presents the first constitutional isomer reported for this natural product class. The structures of these polyketides were determined by spectroscopic analysis, in particular by HMBC, HMQC, and ROESY NMR investigations and by chemical degradation. iso-Archazolid B (6) demonstrated extremely high antiproliferative and V-ATPase inhibitory effects, with IC(50) values in the picomolar range, while only moderate activity was observed for glycoside 5. iso-Archazolid B presents the most potent archazolid known.
    • Archazolid and apicularen: novel specific V-ATPase inhibitors.

      Huss, Markus; Sasse, Florenz; Kunze, Brigitte; Jansen, Rolf; Steinmetz, Heinrich; Ingenhorst, Gudrun; Zeeck, Axel; Wieczorek, Helmut; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2005-08-04)
      V-ATPases constitute a ubiquitous family of heteromultimeric, proton translocating proteins. According to their localization in a multitude of eukaryotic membranes, they energize many different transport processes. Since their malfunction is correlated with various diseases in humans, the elucidation of the properties of this enzyme for the development of selective inhibitors and drugs is one of the challenges in V-ATPase research.
    • The CLU-files: disentanglement of a mystery.

      Rohne, Philipp; Prochnow, Hans; Koch-Brandt, Claudia; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunshweig, Germany. (2016-02)
      The multifaceted protein clusterin (CLU) has been challenging researchers for more than 35 years. The characterization of CLU as a molecular chaperone was one of the major breakthroughs in CLU research. Today, secretory clusterin (sCLU), also known as apolipoprotein J (apoJ), is considered one of the most important extracellular chaperones ever found. It is involved in a broad range of physiological and pathophysiological functions, where it exerts a cytoprotective role. Descriptions of various forms of intracellular CLU have led to further and even contradictory functions. To untangle the current state of knowledge of CLU, this review will combine old views in the field, with new discoveries to highlight the nature and function of this fascinating protein(s). In this review, we further describe the expression and subcellular location of various CLU forms. Moreover, we discuss recent insights into the structure of CLU and assess how structural properties as well as the redox environment determine the chaperone activity of CLU. Eventually, the review connects the biochemistry and molecular cell biology of CLU with medical aspects, to formulate a hypothesis of a CLU function in health and disease.
    • Differential magnesium implant corrosion coat formation and contribution to bone bonding.

      Rahim, Muhammad Imran; Weizbauer, Andreas; Evertz, Florian; Hoffmann, Andrea; Rohde, M; Glasmacher, Birgit; Windhagen, Henning; Gross, Gerhard; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Mueller, Peter P; et al. (2017)
      Magnesium alloys are presently under investigation as promising biodegradable implant materials with osteoconductive properties. To study the molecular mechanisms involved, the potential contribution of soluble magnesium corrosion products to the stimulation of osteoblastic cell differentiation was examined. However, no evidence for the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation could be obtained when cultured mesenchymal precursor cells were differentiated in the presence of metallic magnesium or in cell culture medium containing elevated magnesium ion levels. Similarly, in soft tissue no bone induction by metallic magnesium or by the corrosion product magnesium hydroxide could be observed in a mouse model. Motivated by the comparatively rapid accumulation solid corrosion products physicochemical processes were examined as an alternative mechanism to explain the stimulation of bone growth by magnesium-based implants. During exposure to physiological solutions a structured corrosion coat formed on magnesium whereby the elements calcium and phosphate were enriched in the outermost layer which could play a role in the established biocompatible behavior of magnesium implants. When magnesium pins were inserted into avital bones, corrosion lead to increases in the pull out force, suggesting that the expanding corrosion layer was interlocking with the surrounding bone. Since mechanical stress is a well-established inducer of bone growth, volume increases caused by the rapid accumulation of corrosion products and the resulting force development could be a key mechanism and provide an explanation for the observed stimulatory effects of magnesium-based implants in hard tissue. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 697-709, 2017.
    • The disabled 1 phosphotyrosine-binding domain binds to the internalization signals of transmembrane glycoproteins and to phospholipids.

      Howell, B W; Lanier, L M; Frank, R; Gertler, F B; Cooper, J A; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA (1999-07)
      Disabled gene products are important for nervous system development in drosophila and mammals. In mice, the Dab1 protein is thought to function downstream of the extracellular protein Reln during neuronal positioning. The structures of Dab proteins suggest that they mediate protein-protein or protein-membrane docking functions. Here we show that the amino-terminal phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain of Dab1 binds to the transmembrane glycoproteins of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and low-density lipoprotein receptor families and the cytoplasmic signaling protein Ship. Dab1 associates with the APP cytoplasmic domain in transfected cells and is coexpressed with APP in hippocampal neurons. Screening of a set of altered peptide sequences showed that the sequence GYXNPXY present in APP family members is an optimal binding sequence, with approximately 0.5 microM affinity. Unlike other PTB domains, the Dab1 PTB does not bind to tyrosine-phosphorylated peptide ligands. The PTB domain also binds specifically to phospholipid bilayers containing phosphatidylinositol 4P (PtdIns4P) or PtdIns4,5P2 in a manner that does not interfere with protein binding. We propose that the PTB domain permits Dab1 to bind specifically to transmembrane proteins containing an NPXY internalization signal.
    • Identification of a PA-binding peptide with inhibitory activity against influenza A and B virus replication.

      Wunderlich, Kerstin; Mayer, Daniel; Ranadheera, Charlene; Holler, Anne-Sophie; Mänz, Benjamin; Martin, Arnold; Chase, Geoffrey; Tegge, Werner; Frank, Ronald; Kessler, Ulrich; et al. (2009-10-20)
      There is an urgent need for new drugs against influenza type A and B viruses due to incomplete protection by vaccines and the emergence of resistance to current antivirals. The influenza virus polymerase complex, consisting of the PB1, PB2 and PA subunits, represents a promising target for the development of new drugs. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of targeting the protein-protein interaction domain between the PB1 and PA subunits of the polymerase complex of influenza A virus using a small peptide derived from the PA-binding domain of PB1. However, this influenza A virus-derived peptide did not affect influenza B virus polymerase activity. Here we report that the PA-binding domain of the polymerase subunit PB1 of influenza A and B viruses is highly conserved and that mutual amino acid exchange shows that they cannot be functionally exchanged with each other. Based on phylogenetic analysis and a novel biochemical ELISA-based screening approach, we were able to identify an influenza A-derived peptide with a single influenza B-specific amino acid substitution which efficiently binds to PA of both virus types. This dual-binding peptide blocked the viral polymerase activity and growth of both virus types. Our findings provide proof of principle that protein-protein interaction inhibitors can be generated against influenza A and B viruses. Furthermore, this dual-binding peptide, combined with our novel screening method, is a promising platform to identify new antiviral lead compounds.
    • Immunization of pigs to prevent disease in humans: construction and protective efficacy of a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium live negative-marker vaccine.

      Selke, Martin; Meens, Jochen; Springer, Sven; Frank, Ronald; Gerlach, Gerald-F; nstitute for Microbiology, Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany. (2007-05)
      Zoonotic infections caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium pose a constant threat to consumer health, with the pig being a particularly major source of multidrug-resistant isolates. Vaccination, as a promising approach to reduce colonization and shedding, has been scarcely used, as it interferes with current control programs relying on serology as a means of herd classification. In order to overcome this problem, we set out to develop a negative-marker vaccine allowing the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Applying an immunoproteomic approach with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Western blot, and quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, we identified the OmpD protein as a suitable negative marker. Using allelic exchange, we generated an isogenic mutant of the licensed live vaccine strain Salmoporc and showed that virulence of Salmoporc and that of the mutant strain, SalmoporcDeltaompD, were indistinguishable in BALB/c mice. In a pig infection experiment including two oral immunizations with SalmoporcDeltaompD and challenge with a multiresistant S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 clinical isolate, we confirmed the protective efficacy of SalmoporcDeltaompD in pigs, showing a significant reduction of both clinical symptoms and colonization of lymph nodes and intestinal tract. OmpD immunogenic epitopes were determined by peptide spot array analyses. Upon testing of several 9-mer peptides, each including an immunogenic epitope, one peptide (positions F(100) to Y(108)) that facilitated the detection of infected animals independent of their vaccination status (DIVA function) was identified. The approach described overcomes the problems currently limiting the use of bacterial live vaccines and holds considerable potential for future developments in the field.
    • The interaction of the gammaherpesvirus 68 orf73 protein with cellular BET proteins affects the activation of cell cycle promoters.

      Ottinger, Matthias; Pliquet, Daniel; Christalla, Thomas; Frank, Ronald; Stewart, James P; Schulz, Thomas F; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2009-05)
      Infection of mice with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) provides a valuable animal model for gamma-2 herpesvirus (rhadinovirus) infection and pathogenesis. The MHV-68 orf73 protein has been shown to be required for the establishment of viral latency in vivo. This study describes a novel transcriptional activation function of the MHV-68 orf73 protein and identifies the cellular bromodomain containing BET proteins Brd2/RING3, Brd3/ORFX, and BRD4 as interaction partners for the MHV-68 orf73 protein. BET protein members are known to interact with acetylated histones, and Brd2 and Brd4 have been implicated in fundamental cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation and transcriptional regulation. Using MHV-68 orf73 peptide array assays, we identified Brd2 and Brd4 interaction sites in the orf73 protein. Mutation of one binding site led to a loss of the interaction with Brd2/4 but not the retinoblastoma protein Rb, to impaired chromatin association, and to a decreased ability to activate the BET-responsive cyclin D1, D2, and E promoters. The results therefore pinpoint the binding site for Brd2/4 in a rhadinoviral orf73 protein and suggest that the recruitment of a member of the BET protein family allows the MHV-68 orf73 protein to activate the promoters of G(1)/S cyclins. These findings point to parallels between the transcriptional activator functions of rhadinoviral orf73 proteins and papillomavirus E2 proteins.
    • Modification of uptake and subcellular distribution of doxorubicin by N-acylhydrazone residues as visualised by intrinsic fluorescence.

      Effenberger-Neidnicht, Katharina; Breyer, Sandra; Mahal, Katharina; Sasse, Florenz; Schobert, Rainer (2012-01)
      Doxorubicin (1) is commonly used in the treatment of a wide range of cancers. Some N-acylhydrazones of 1 were previously found to have an improved tumour and organ selectivity. In order to clarify the molecular basis for this effect, the cellular uptake into various cancer cells and the localisation in PtK(2) potoroo kidney cells of 1 and its N-acylhydrazones derived from heptadecanoic acid (2) and 11-(menthoxycarbonyl)undecanoic acid (3) were studied drawing on their intrinsic fluorescence.
    • A multi-target caffeine derived rhodium(i) N-heterocyclic carbene complex: evaluation of the mechanism of action.

      Zhang, Jing-Jing; Muenzner, Julienne K; Abu El Maaty, Mohamed A; Karge, Bianka; Schobert, Rainer; Wölfl, Stefan; Ott, Ingo; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2016-08-16)
      A rhodium(i) and a ruthenium(ii) complex with a caffeine derived N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand were biologically investigated as organometallic conjugates consisting of a metal center and a naturally occurring moiety. While the ruthenium(ii) complex was largely inactive, the rhodium(i) NHC complex displayed selective cytotoxicity and significant anti-metastatic and in vivo anti-vascular activities and acted as both a mammalian and an E. coli thioredoxin reductase inhibitor. In HCT-116 cells it increased the reactive oxygen species level, leading to DNA damage, and it induced cell cycle arrest, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, and triggered apoptosis. This rhodium(i) NHC derivative thus represents a multi-target compound with promising anti-cancer potential.
    • Multiple antibody targets on herpes B glycoproteins B and D identified by screening sera of infected rhesus macaques with peptide microarrays.

      Hotop, Sven-Kevin; Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; Beutling, Ulrike; Jentsch, Dieter; Motzkus, Dirk; Frank, Ronald; Hunsmann, Gerhard; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Fritz, Hans-Joachim; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2014)
      Herpes B virus (or Herpesvirus simiae or Macacine herpesvirus 1) is endemic in many populations of macaques, both in the wild and in captivity. The virus elicits only mild clinical symptoms (if any) in monkeys, but can be transmitted by various routes, most commonly via bites, to humans where it causes viral encephalitis with a high mortality rate. Hence, herpes B constitutes a considerable occupational hazard for animal caretakers, veterinarians and laboratory personnel. Efforts are therefore being made to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection and to improve prognosis after accidental exposure. Among the measures envisaged are serological surveillance of monkey colonies and specific diagnosis of herpes B zoonosis against a background of antibodies recognizing the closely related human herpes simplex virus (HSV). 422 pentadecapeptides covering, in an overlapping fashion, the entire amino acid sequences of herpes B proteins gB and gD were synthesized and immobilized on glass slides. Antibodies present in monkey sera that bind to subsets of the peptide collection were detected by microserological techniques. With 42 different rhesus macaque sera, 114 individual responses to 18 different antibody target regions (ATRs) were recorded, 17 of which had not been described earlier. This finding may pave the way for a peptide-based, herpes B specific serological diagnostic test.
    • Olfaction, taste and chemoreception: scientific evidence replaces "Essays in biopoetry".

      Appendino, Giovanni; Brönstrup, Mark; Kubanek, Julia M; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017)
    • SAR studies on hydropentalene derivatives--Important core units of biologically active tetramic acid macrolactams and ptychanolides.

      Lutz, Vanessa; Mannchen, Fabian; Krebs, Michael; Park, Natja; Krüger, Claudia; Raja, Aruna; Sasse, Florenz; Baro, Angelika; Laschat, Sabine; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2014-07-01)
      Structurally diverse bicyclo[3.3.0]octanes were prepared and tested for their biological activity. Both the antiproliferative activity and the results of phenotypic characterization varied with the substitution patterns. Two derivatives displayed high inhibitory (IC50 ≤3μM) activity against the L-929 cell line, but differed in their mode of action. A cluster analysis with impedance profiling data showed the two compounds in relationship to microtubule interfering compounds. In PtK2 cells treated with both derivatives a perturbing effect on the microtubular network was observed, whereas the actin cytoskeleton in incubated PtK2 cells was disturbed only by one compound. The effects on tubulin and actin polymerization could be confirmed by in vitro polymerization experiments.