• JKTBP1 is involved in stabilization and IRES-dependent translation of NRF mRNAs by binding to 5' and 3' untranslated regions.

      Omnus, Deike Johanne; Mehrtens, Sarah; Ritter, Birgit; Resch, Klaus; Yamada, Michiyuki; Frank, Ronald; Nourbakhsh, Mahtab; Reboll, Marc René; Helmholtz Centre for infection research. Inhoffenstr. 7. 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2011-04-08)
      Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D-like protein (JKTBP) 1 was implicated in cap-independent translation by binding to the internal ribosome entry site in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of NF-κB-repressing factor (NRF). Two different NRF mRNAs have been identified so far, both sharing the common 5' internal ribosome entry site but having different length of 3' UTRs. Here, we used a series of DNA and RNA luciferase reporter constructs comprising 5', 3' or both NRF UTRs to study the effect of JKTBP1 on translation of NRF mRNA variants. The results indicate that JKTBP1 regulates the level of NRF protein expression by binding to both NRF 5' and 3' UTRs. Using successive deletion and point mutations as well as RNA binding studies, we define two distinct JKTBP1 binding elements in NRF 5' and 3' UTRs. Furthermore, JKTBP1 requires two distinct RNA binding domains to interact with NRF UTRs and a short C-terminal region for its effect on NRF expression. Together, our study shows that JKTBP1 contributes to NRF protein expression via two disparate mechanisms: mRNA stabilization and cap-independent translation. By binding to 5' UTR, JKTBP1 increases the internal translation initiation in both NRF mRNA variants, whereas its binding to 3' UTR elevated primarily the stability of the major NRF mRNA. Thus, JKTBP1 is a key regulatory factor linking two pivotal control mechanisms of NRF gene expression: the cap-independent translation initiation and mRNA stabilization.
    • Mapping of NRF binding motifs of NF-kappaB p65 subunit.

      Reboll, Marc R; Schweda, Aike T; Bartels, Myriam; Franke, Raimo; Frank, Ronald; Nourbakhsh, Mahtab; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2011-11)
      NF-kappaB repressing factor (NRF) is a nuclear transcription factor that binds to a specific DNA sequence in NF-kappaB target promoters. Previous reports suggested that NRF interferes with the transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB binding sites through a direct interaction with NF-kappaB subunits. The aim of this study was to map specific NRF binding domains in the NF-kappaB proteins, p65 and p50. Our data demonstrate that NRF is able to interact with the p65 subunit and inhibit its transcription enhancing activity in reporter gene experiments. Using tandem affinity purifications (TAP), we show that NRF protein significantly binds to the endogenous p65, subunit but not to the p50 subunit. The selective binding activity of the NRF protein is consistently mediated by the N-terminal domain of NRF (Amino acids 1-380). Moreover, the Rel homology domain (RHD) of p65 is sufficient for binding to the N-terminal domain of NRF. Using detailed peptide mapping studies, we finally identify three peptide motifs in p65 RHD showing distinctive binding specificities for the NRF protein. According to the predicted structure of p65, all three peptide motifs align within an exposed region of p65 and might hint at promising targets for inhibitors.