• Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus viral interferon regulatory factor 4 (vIRF4/K10) is a novel interaction partner of CSL/CBF1, the major downstream effector of Notch signaling.

      Heinzelmann, Katharina; Scholz, Barbara A; Nowak, Agnes; Fossum, Even; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Haas, Juergen; Frank, Ronald; Kempkes, Bettina; Helmholtz Centre for infection research. Inhoffenstr. 7. 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2010-12)
      In cells infected with the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), CSL/CBF1 signaling is essential for viral replication and promotes the survival of KSHV-infected cells. CSL/CBF1 is a DNA adaptor molecule which recruits coactivator and corepressor complexes to regulate viral and cellular gene transcription and which is a major downstream effector molecule of activated Notch. The interaction of KSHV RTA and LANA with CSL/CBF1 has been shown to balance the lytic and latent viral life cycle. Here we report that a third KSHV protein, viral interferon regulatory factor 4 (vIRF4/K10), but none of the three other KSHV-encoded vIRFs, interacts with CSL/CBF1. Two regions of vIRF4 with dissimilar affinities contribute to CSL/CBF1 binding. Similar to Notch, vIRF4 targets the hydrophobic pocket in the beta trefoil domain of CSL/CBF1 through a short peptide motif which closely resembles a motif found in Notch but does not strictly follow the ΦWΦP consensus conserved in human and mouse Notch proteins. Our results suggest that vIRF4 might compete with Notch for CSL/CBF1 binding and signaling.
    • Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase activity is critical for initiating the oxidative burst and bacterial destruction during CEACAM3-mediated phagocytosis.

      Buntru, Alexander; Kopp, Kathrin; Voges, Maike; Frank, Ronald; Bachmann, Verena; Hauck, Christof R; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2011-03-18)
      Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 3 (CEACAM3) is an immunoglobulin-related receptor expressed on human granulocytes. CEACAM3 functions as a single chain phagocytotic receptor recognizing gram-negative bacteria such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which possess CEACAM-binding adhesins on their surface. The cytoplasmic domain of CEACAM3 contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-like sequence that is phosphorylated upon receptor engagement. Here we show that the SH2 domains of the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) bind to tyrosine residue 230 of CEACAM3 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. PI3K is rapidly recruited and directly associates with CEACAM3 upon bacterial binding as shown by FRET analysis. Although PI3K activity is not required for efficient uptake of the bacteria by CEACAM3-transfected cells or primary human granulocytes, it is critical for the stimulated production of reactive oxygen species by infected phagocytes and the intracellular degradation of CEACAM-binding bacteria. Together, our results highlight the ability of CEACAM3 to coordinate signaling events that not only mediate bacterial uptake, but also trigger the killing of internalized pathogens.