• Adaptation of Dinoroseobacter shibae to oxidative stress and the specific role of RirA.

      Beier, Nicole; Kucklick, Martin; Fuchs, Stephan; Mustafayeva, Ayten; Behringer, Maren; Härtig, Elisabeth; Jahn, Dieter; Engelmann, Susanne; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (PLOS, 2021-03-29)
      Dinoroseobacter shibae living in the photic zone of marine ecosystems is frequently exposed to oxygen that forms highly reactive species. Here, we analysed the adaptation of D. shibae to different kinds of oxidative stress using a GeLC-MS/MS approach. D. shibae was grown in artificial seawater medium in the dark with succinate as sole carbon source and exposed to hydrogen peroxide, paraquat or diamide. We quantified 2580 D. shibae proteins. 75 proteins changed significantly in response to peroxide stress, while 220 and 207 proteins were differently regulated by superoxide stress and thiol stress. As expected, proteins like thioredoxin and peroxiredoxin were among these proteins. In addition, proteins involved in bacteriochlophyll biosynthesis were repressed under disulfide and superoxide stress but not under peroxide stress. In contrast, proteins associated with iron transport accumulated in response to peroxide and superoxide stress. Interestingly, the iron-responsive regulator RirA in D. shibae was downregulated by all stressors. A rirA deletion mutant showed an improved adaptation to peroxide stress suggesting that RirA dependent proteins are associated with oxidative stress resistance. Altogether, 139 proteins were upregulated in the mutant strain. Among them are proteins associated with protection and repair of DNA and proteins (e. g. ClpB, Hsp20, RecA, and a thioredoxin like protein). Strikingly, most of the proteins involved in iron metabolism such as iron binding proteins and transporters were not part of the upregulated proteins. In fact, rirA deficient cells were lacking a peroxide dependent induction of these proteins that may also contribute to a higher cell viability under these conditions.
    • Dinoroseobacter shibae Outer Membrane Vesicles Are Enriched for the Chromosome Dimer Resolution Site dif.

      Wang, Hui; Beier, Nicole; Boedeker, Christian; Sztajer, Helena; Henke, Petra; Neumann-Schaal, Meina; Mansky, Johannes; Rohde, Manfred; Overmann, Jörg; Petersen, Jörn; et al. (American Society for Microbiology, 2021-01-12)
      Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are universally produced by prokaryotes and play important roles in symbiotic and pathogenic interactions. They often contain DNA, but a mechanism for its incorporation is lacking. Here, we show that Dinoroseobacter shibae, a dinoflagellate symbiont, constitutively secretes OMVs containing DNA. Time-lapse microscopy captured instances of multiple OMV production at the septum during cell division. DNA from the vesicle lumen was up to 22-fold enriched for the region around the terminus of replication (ter). The peak of coverage was located at dif, a conserved 28-bp palindromic sequence required for binding of the site-specific tyrosine recombinases XerC/XerD. These enzymes are activated at the last stage of cell division immediately prior to septum formation when they are bound by the divisome protein FtsK. We suggest that overreplicated regions around the terminus have been repaired by the FtsK-dif-XerC/XerD molecular machinery. The vesicle proteome was clearly dominated by outer membrane and periplasmic proteins. Some of the most abundant vesicle membrane proteins were predicted to be required for direct interaction with peptidoglycan during cell division (LysM, Tol-Pal, Spol, lytic murein transglycosylase). OMVs were 15-fold enriched for the saturated fatty acid 16:00. We hypothesize that constitutive OMV secretion in D. shibae is coupled to cell division. The footprint of the FtsK-dif-XerC/XerD molecular machinery suggests a novel potentially highly conserved route for incorporation of DNA into OMVs. Clearing the division site from small DNA fragments might be an important function of vesicles produced during exponential growth under optimal conditions.IMPORTANCE Gram-negative bacteria continually form vesicles from their outer membrane (outer membrane vesicles [OMVs]) during normal growth. OMVs frequently contain DNA, and it is unclear how DNA can be shuffled from the cytoplasm to the OMVs. We studied OMV cargo in Dinoroseobacter shibae, a symbiont of dinoflagellates, using microscopy and a multi-omics approach. We found that vesicles formed during undisturbed exponential growth contain DNA which is enriched for genes around the replication terminus, specifically, the binding site for an enzyme complex that is activated at the last stage of cell division. We suggest that the enriched genes are the result of overreplication which is repaired by their excision and excretion via membrane vesicles to clear the divisome from waste DNA.