• Costs of life - Dynamics of the protein inventory of Staphylococcus aureus during anaerobiosis.

      Zühlke, Daniela; Dörries, Kirsten; Bernhardt, Jörg; Maaß, Sandra; Muntel, Jan; Liebscher, Volkmar; Pané-Farré, Jan; Riedel, Katharina; Lalk, Michael; Völker, Uwe; et al. (2016)
      Absolute protein quantification was applied to follow the dynamics of the cytoplasmic proteome of Staphylococcus aureus in response to long-term oxygen starvation. For 1,168 proteins, the majority of all expressed proteins, molecule numbers per cell have been determined to monitor the cellular investments in single branches of bacterial life for the first time. In the presence of glucose the anaerobic protein pattern is characterized by increased amounts of glycolytic and fermentative enzymes such as Eno, GapA1, Ldh1, and PflB. Interestingly, the ferritin-like protein FtnA belongs to the most abundant proteins during anaerobic growth. Depletion of glucose finally leads to an accumulation of different enzymes such as ArcB1, ArcB2, and ArcC2 involved in arginine deiminase pathway. Concentrations of 29 exo- and 78 endometabolites were comparatively assessed and have been integrated to the metabolic networks. Here we provide an almost complete picture on the response to oxygen starvation, from signal transduction pathways to gene expression pattern, from metabolic reorganization after oxygen depletion to beginning cell death and lysis after glucose exhaustion. This experimental approach can be considered as a proof of principle how to combine cell physiology with quantitative proteomics for a new dimension in understanding simple life processes as an entity.
    • Metaproteomics to unravel major microbial players in leaf litter and soil environments: challenges and perspectives.

      Becher, Dörte; Bernhardt, Jörg; Fuchs, Stephan; Riedel, Katharina; Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University of Greifswald, Institute of Microbiology, Greifswald, Germany. (2013-10)
      Soil- and litter-borne microorganisms vitally contribute to biogeochemical cycles. However, changes in environmental parameters but also human interferences may alter species composition and elicit alterations in microbial activities. Soil and litter metaproteomics, implying the assignment of soil and litter proteins to specific phylogenetic and functional groups, has a great potential to provide essential new insights into the impact of microbial diversity on soil ecosystem functioning. This article will illuminate challenges and perspectives of current soil and litter metaproteomics research, starting with an introduction to an appropriate experimental design and state-of-the-art proteomics methodologies. This will be followed by a summary of important studies aimed at (i) the discovery of the major biotic drivers of leaf litter decomposition, (ii) metaproteomics analyses of rhizosphere-inhabiting microbes, and (iii) global approaches to study bioremediation processes. The review will be closed by a brief outlook on future developments and some concluding remarks, which should assist the reader to develop successful concepts for soil and litter metaproteomics studies.