• Adaptation of Dinoroseobacter shibae to oxidative stress and the specific role of RirA.

      Beier, Nicole; Kucklick, Martin; Fuchs, Stephan; Mustafayeva, Ayten; Behringer, Maren; Härtig, Elisabeth; Jahn, Dieter; Engelmann, Susanne; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (PLOS, 2021-03-29)
      Dinoroseobacter shibae living in the photic zone of marine ecosystems is frequently exposed to oxygen that forms highly reactive species. Here, we analysed the adaptation of D. shibae to different kinds of oxidative stress using a GeLC-MS/MS approach. D. shibae was grown in artificial seawater medium in the dark with succinate as sole carbon source and exposed to hydrogen peroxide, paraquat or diamide. We quantified 2580 D. shibae proteins. 75 proteins changed significantly in response to peroxide stress, while 220 and 207 proteins were differently regulated by superoxide stress and thiol stress. As expected, proteins like thioredoxin and peroxiredoxin were among these proteins. In addition, proteins involved in bacteriochlophyll biosynthesis were repressed under disulfide and superoxide stress but not under peroxide stress. In contrast, proteins associated with iron transport accumulated in response to peroxide and superoxide stress. Interestingly, the iron-responsive regulator RirA in D. shibae was downregulated by all stressors. A rirA deletion mutant showed an improved adaptation to peroxide stress suggesting that RirA dependent proteins are associated with oxidative stress resistance. Altogether, 139 proteins were upregulated in the mutant strain. Among them are proteins associated with protection and repair of DNA and proteins (e. g. ClpB, Hsp20, RecA, and a thioredoxin like protein). Strikingly, most of the proteins involved in iron metabolism such as iron binding proteins and transporters were not part of the upregulated proteins. In fact, rirA deficient cells were lacking a peroxide dependent induction of these proteins that may also contribute to a higher cell viability under these conditions.
    • Mixture Effects of Estrogenic Pesticides at the Human Estrogen Receptor α and β.

      Seeger, Bettina; Klawonn, Frank; Nguema Bekale, Boris; Steinberg, Pablo; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2016)
      Consumers of fruits and vegetables are frequently exposed to small amounts of hormonally active pesticides, some of them sharing a common mode of action such as the activation of the human estrogen receptor α (hERα) or β (hERβ). Therefore, it is of particular importance to evaluate risks emanating from chemical mixtures, in which the individual pesticides are present at human-relevant concentrations, below their corresponding maximum residue levels. Binary and ternary iso-effective mixtures of estrogenic pesticides at effect concentrations eliciting a 1 or 10% effect in the presence or absence of 17β-estradiol were tested experimentally at the hERα in the yeast-based estrogen screen (YES) assay as well as in the human U2-OS cell-based ERα chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (ERα CALUX) assay and at the hERβ in the ERβ CALUX assay. The outcome was then compared to predictions calculated by means of concentration addition. In most cases, additive effects were observed with the tested combinations in all three test systems, an observation that supports the need to expand the risk assessment of pesticides and consider cumulative risk assessment. An additional testing of mixture effects at the hERβ showed that most test substances being active at the hERα could also elicit additive effects at the hERβ, but the hERβ was less sensitive. In conclusion, effects of the same ligands at the hERα and the hERβ could influence the estrogenic outcome under physiological conditions.