• Cows selected for divergent mastitis susceptibility display a differential liver transcriptome profile after experimental Staphylococcus aureus mammary gland inoculation

      Heimes, A.; Brodhagen, J.; Weikard, R.; Becker, D.; Meyerholz, M. M.; Petzl, W.; Zerbe, H.; Schuberth, H. J.; Hoedemaker, M.; Schmicke, M.; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-07-01)
      Infection and inflammation of the mammary gland, and especially prevention of mastitis, are still major challenges for the dairy industry. Different approaches have been tried to reduce the incidence of mastitis. Genetic selection of cows with lower susceptibility to mastitis promises sustainable success in this regard. Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 18, particularly the region between 43 and 59 Mb, harbors quantitative trait loci (QTL) for somatic cell score, a surrogate trait for mastitis susceptibility. Scrutinizing the molecular bases hereof, we challenged udders from half-sib heifers having inherited either favorable paternal haplotypes for somatic cell score (Q) or unfavorable haplotypes (q) with the Staphylococcus aureus pathogen. RNA sequencing was used for an in-depth analysis of challenge-related alterations in the hepatic transcriptome. Liver exerts highly relevant immune functions aside from being the key metabolic organ. Hence, a holistic approach focusing on the liver enabled us to identify challenge-related and genotype-dependent differentially expressed genes and underlying regulatory networks. In response to the S. aureus challenge, we found that heifers with Q haplotypes displayed more activated immune genes and pathways after S. aureus challenge compared with their q half-sibs. Furthermore, we found a significant enrichment of differentially expressed loci in the genomic target region on BTA18, suggesting the existence of a regionally acting regulatory element with effects on a variety of genes in this region. © 2020 American Dairy Science Association
    • Elimination of Staphylococcus aureus from the bloodstream using a novel biomimetic sorbent haemoperfusion device.

      Seffer, Malin-Theres; Eden, Gabriele; Engelmann, Susanne; Kielstein, Jan T (2020-08-24)
      Removal of bacteria from the blood by means of extracorporeal techniques has been attempted for decades. In late 2019, the European Union licensed the first ever haemoperfusion device for removal of bacteria from the blood. The active ingredient of Seraph 100 Microbind Affinity Blood Filter is ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene beads with endpoint-attached heparin. Bacteria have been shown to bind to heparin as they would usually do to the heparan sulfate on the cell surface, thereby being removed from the blood stream. We describe the first case of a female chronic haemodialysis patient in which this device was clinically used for a Staphylococcus aureus infection that persisted for 4 days despite antibiotic therapy. After a single treatment, the bacterial load decreased and the blood cultures at the end of a 4 hour haemoperfusion exhibited no bacterial growth.
    • Heparin 2.0: A New Approach to the Infection Crisis.

      Seffer, Malin-Theres; Cottam, Daniel; Forni, Lui G; Kielstein, Jan T; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Karger AG, 2020-07-02)
      In April 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration granted emergency use authorization for certain medical devices to be used in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (CO-VID-19). This included extracorporeal blood purification devices. This narrative review will give a brief overview regarding some of the extracorporeal devices that could be used to treat COVID-19 patients, including the Seraph® 100 Microbind® Affinity Blood Filter, produced by ExThera Medical (Martinez, CA, USA), first licensed in the European Economic Area in 2019. The Seraph® 100 contains ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene beads with end point-attached heparin and is approved for the reduction of pathogens from the bloodstream either as a single agent or as an adjunct to conventional anti-infective agents. Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and toxins have been shown to bind to the immobilized heparin in a similar way to the interaction with heparan sulfate on the cell surface. This binding is nonreversible and as such, the pathogens are removed from the bloodstream. In this review, we describe the pathophysiological basis and rationale for using heparin for pathogen removal from the blood as well as exploring the technology behind the adaptation of heparin to deprive it of its systemic anticoagulant activity. In addition, we summarize the in vitro data as well as the available preclinical testing and published clinical reports. Finally, we discuss the enormous potential of this technology in an era of increasing antibiotic resistance and high mortality associated with sepsis and consider the application of this as a possible treatment option for COVID-19.
    • Hepatic Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Divergent Pathogen-Specific Targeting-Strategies to Modulate the Innate Immune System in Response to Intramammary Infection.

      Heimes, Annika; Brodhagen, Johanna; Weikard, Rosemarie; Seyfert, Hans-Martin; Becker, Doreen; Meyerholz, Marie M; Petzl, Wolfram; Zerbe, Holm; Hoedemaker, Martina; Rohmeier, Laura; et al. (Frontiers, 2020-04-29)
      Mastitis is one of the major risks for public health and animal welfare in the dairy industry. Two of the most important pathogens to cause mastitis in dairy cattle are Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). While S. aureus generally induces a chronic and subclinical mastitis, E. coli is an important etiological pathogen resulting in an acute and clinical mastitis. The liver plays a central role in both, the metabolic and inflammatory physiology of the dairy cow, which is particularly challenged in the early lactation due to high metabolic and immunological demands. In the current study, we challenged the mammary glands of Holstein cows with S. aureus or E. coli, respectively, mimicking an early lactation infection. We compared the animals' liver transcriptomes with those of untreated controls to investigate the hepatic response of the individuals. Both, S. aureus and E. coli elicited systemic effects on the host after intramammary challenge and seemed to use pathogen-specific targeting strategies to bypass the innate immune system. The most striking result of our study is that we demonstrate for the first time that S. aureus intramammary challenge causes an immune response beyond the original local site of the mastitis. We found that in the peripheral liver tissue defined biological pathways are switched on in a coordinated manner to balance the immune response in the entire organism. TGFB1 signaling plays a crucial role in this context. Important pathways involving actin and integrin, key components of the cytoskeleton, were downregulated in the liver of S. aureus infected cows. In the hepatic transcriptome of E. coli infected cows, important components of the complement system were significantly lower expressed compared to the control cows. Notably, while S. aureus inhibits the cell signaling by Rho GTPases in the liver, E. coli switches the complement system off. Also, metabolic hepatic pathways (e.g., lipid metabolism) are affected after mammary gland challenge, demonstrating that the liver restricts metabolic tasks in favor of the predominant immune response after infection. Our results provide new insights for the infection-induced modifications of the dairy cow's hepatic transcriptome following mastitis.