group leader: Prof. Pietschmann

Recent Submissions

  • Ecological and pharmacological activities of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (Pbdes) from the indonesian marine sponge lamellodysidea herbacea.

    Faisal, Muhammad R; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Rohde, Sven; Putra, Masteria Y; Murniasih, Tutik; Risdian, Chandra; Mohr, Kathrin I; Wink, Joachim; Praditya, Dimas F; Steinmann, Eike; et al. (MDPI, 2021-10-27)
    Two known Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs), 3,4,5-tribromo-2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)phenol (1d) and 3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)phenol (2b), were isolated from the Indonesian marine sponge Lamellodysidea herbacea. The structure was confirmed using 13C chemical shift average deviation and was compared to the predicted structures and recorded chemical shifts in previous studies. We found a wide range of bioactivities from the organic crude extract, such as (1) a strong deterrence against the generalist pufferfish Canthigaster solandri, (2) potent inhibition against environmental and human pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains, and (3) the inhibition of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). The addition of a bromine atom into the A-ring of compound 2b resulted in higher fish feeding deterrence compared to compound 1d. On the contrary, compound 2b showed only more potent inhibition against the Gram-negative bacteria Rhodotorula glutinis (MIC 2.1 μg/mL), while compound 1d showed more powerful inhibition against the other human pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The first report of a chemical defense by compounds 1d and 2b against fish feeding and environmental relevant bacteria, especially pathogenic bacteria, might be one reason for the widespread occurrence of the shallow water sponge Lamellodysidea herbacea in Indonesia and the Indo-Pacific.
  • Fluvastatin mitigates SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung cells.

    Zapatero-Belinchón, Francisco J; Moeller, Rebecca; Lasswitz, Lisa; van Ham, Marco; Becker, Miriam; Brogden, Graham; Rosendal, Ebba; Bi, Wenjie; Carriquí-Madroñal, Belén; Islam, Koushikul; et al. (Cell Press, 2021-11-18)
    Clinical data of patients suffering from COVID-19 indicates that statin therapy, used to treat hypercholesterolemia, is associated with a better disease outcome. Whether statins directly affect virus replication or influence the clinical outcome through modulation of immune responses is unknown. We therefore investigated the effect of statins on SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung cells and found that only fluvastatin inhibited low and high pathogenic coronaviruses in vitro and ex vivo in a dose-dependent manner. Quantitative proteomics revealed that fluvastatin and other tested statins modulated the cholesterol synthesis pathway without altering innate antiviral immune responses in infected lung epithelial cells. However, fluvastatin treatment specifically downregulated proteins that modulate protein translation and viral replication. Collectively, these results support the notion that statin therapy poses no additional risk to individuals exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and that fluvastatin has a moderate beneficial effect on SARS-CoV-2 infection of human lung cells.
  • Interaction of myxobacteria-derived outer membrane vesicles with biofilms: antiadhesive and antibacterial effects.

    Goes, Adriely; Vidakovic, Lucia; Drescher, Knut; Fuhrmann, Gregor; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany.; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH,Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany.; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2021-08-02)
    Bacterial biofilms are widespread in nature and in medical settings and display a high tolerance to antibiotics and disinfectants. Extracellular vesicles have been increasingly studied to characterise their origins and assess their potential for use as a versatile drug delivery system; however, it remains unclear whether they also have antibiofilm effects. Outer membrane vesicles are lipid vesicles shed by Gram-negative bacteria and, in the case of myxobacteria, carry natural antimicrobial compounds produced by these microorganisms. In this study, we demonstrate that vesicles derived from the myxobacteria Cystobacter velatus Cbv34 and Cystobacter ferrugineus Cbfe23 are highly effective at inhibiting the formation and disrupting biofilms by different bacterial species.
  • Congenital deficiency reveals critical role of ISG15 in skin homeostasis.

    Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Waqas, Syed F Hassnain; Zeitvogel, Jana; Cheng, Jingyuan; Geffers, Robert; Gouda, Zeinab Abu-Elbaha; Elsaman, Ahmed Mahrous; Radwan, Ahmed R; Schefzyk, Matthias; Braubach, Peter; et al. (Society of clinical investigation, 2021-11-30)
    Ulcerating skin lesions are manifestations of human ISG15 deficiency, a type I interferonopathy. However, chronic inflammation may not be their exclusive cause. We describe two siblings with recurrent skin ulcers that healed with scar formation upon corticosteroid treatment. Both had a homozygous nonsense mutation in the ISG15 gene, leading to unstable ISG15 protein lacking the functional domain. We characterized ISG15-/- dermal fibroblasts, HaCaT keratinocytes, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived vascular endothelial cells. ISG15-deficient cells exhibited the expected hyperinflammatory phenotype, but also dysregulated expression of molecules critical for connective tissue and epidermis integrity, including reduced collagens and adhesion molecules, but increased matrix metalloproteases. ISG15-/- fibroblasts exhibited elevated ROS levels and reduced ROS scavenger expression. As opposed to hyperinflammation, defective collagen and integrin synthesis was not rescued by conjugation-deficient ISG15. Cell migration was retarded in ISG15-/- fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes, but normalized under ruxolitinib treatment. Desmosome density was reduced in an ISG15-/- 3D epidermis model. Additionally, there were loose architecture and reduced collagen and desmoglein expression, which could be reversed by treatment with ruxolitinib/doxycycline/TGF-β1. These results reveal critical roles of ISG15 in maintaining cell migration and epidermis and connective tissue homeostasis, whereby the latter likely requires its conjugation to yet unidentified targets.
  • Bioinformatics of virus taxonomy: foundations and tools for developing sequence-based hierarchical classification.

    Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Lauber, Chris; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH,Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (Elsevier, 2021-12-06)
    The genome sequence is the only characteristic readily obtainable for all known viruses, underlying the growing role of comparative genomics in organizing knowledge about viruses in a systematic evolution-aware way, known as virus taxonomy. Overseen by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), development of virus taxonomy involves taxa demarcation at 15 ranks of a hierarchical classification, often in host-specific manner. Outside the ICTV remit, researchers assess fitting numerous unclassified viruses into the established taxa. They employ different metrics of virus clustering, basing on conserved domain(s), separation of viruses in rooted phylogenetic trees and pair-wise distance space. Computational approaches differ further in respect to methodology, number of ranks considered, sensitivity to uneven virus sampling, and visualization of results. Advancing and using computational tools will be critical for improving taxa demarcation across the virosphere and resolving rank origins in research that may also inform experimental virology. Copyrigh
  • Characterization of RNA Sensing Pathways in Hepatoma Cell Lines and Primary Human Hepatocytes.

    Nicolay, Wiebke; Moeller, Rebecca; Kahl, Sina; Vondran, Florian W R; Pietschmann, Thomas; Kunz, Stefan; Gerold, Gisa; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH,Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (MDPI, 2021-11-04)
    The liver is targeted by several human pathogenic RNA viruses for viral replication and dissemination; despite this, the extent of innate immune sensing of RNA viruses by human hepatocytes is insufficiently understood to date. In particular, for highly human tropic viruses such as hepatitis C virus, cell culture models are needed to study immune sensing. However, several human hepatoma cell lines have impaired RNA sensing pathways and fail to mimic innate immune responses in the human liver. Here we compare the RNA sensing properties of six human hepatoma cell lines, namely Huh-6, Huh-7, HepG2, HepG2-HFL, Hep3B, and HepaRG, with primary human hepatocytes. We show that primary liver cells sense RNA through retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) like receptor (RLR) and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) pathways. Of the tested cell lines, Hep3B cells most closely mimicked the RLR and TLR3 mediated sensing in primary hepatocytes. This was shown by the expression of RLRs and TLR3 as well as the expression and release of bioactive interferon in primary hepatocytes and Hep3B cells. Our work shows that Hep3B cells partially mimic RNA sensing in primary hepatocytes and thus can serve as in vitro model to study innate immunity to RNA viruses in hepatocytes.
  • Impaired immune response mediated by prostaglandin E2 promotes severe COVID-19 disease.

    Ricke-Hoch, Melanie; Stelling, Elisabeth; Lasswitz, Lisa; Gunesch, Antonia P; Kasten, Martina; Zapatero-Belinchón, Francisco J; Brogden, Graham; Gerold, Gisa; Pietschmann, Thomas; Montiel, Virginie; et al. (PLOS, 2021-08-04)
    he SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has led to a pandemic with millions of people affected. The present study finds that risk-factors for severe COVID-19 disease courses, i.e. male sex, older age and sedentary life style are associated with higher prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) serum levels in blood samples from unaffected subjects. In COVID-19 patients, PGE2 blood levels are markedly elevated and correlate positively with disease severity. SARS-CoV-2 induces PGE2 generation and secretion in infected lung epithelial cells by upregulating cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 and reducing the PG-degrading enzyme 15-hydroxyprostaglandin-dehydrogenase. Also living human precision cut lung slices (PCLS) infected with SARS-CoV-2 display upregulated COX-2. Regular exercise in aged individuals lowers PGE2 serum levels, which leads to increased Paired-Box-Protein-Pax-5 (PAX5) expression, a master regulator of B-cell survival, proliferation and differentiation also towards long lived memory B-cells, in human pre-B-cell lines. Moreover, PGE2 levels in serum of COVID-19 patients lowers the expression of PAX5 in human pre-B-cell lines. The PGE2 inhibitor Taxifolin reduces SARS-CoV-2-induced PGE2 production. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2, male sex, old age, and sedentary life style increase PGE2 levels, which may reduce the early anti-viral defense as well as the development of immunity promoting severe disease courses and multiple infections. Regular exercise and Taxifolin treatment may reduce these risks and prevent severe disease courses.
  • Clinical Course of Infection and Cross-Species Detection of Equine Parvovirus-Hepatitis.

    Reinecke, Birthe; Klöhn, Mara; Brüggemann, Yannick; Kinast, Volker; Todt, Daniel; Stang, Alexander; Badenhorst, Marcha; Koeppel, Katja; Guthrie, Alan; Groner, Ursula; et al. (MDPI, 2021-07-26)
    The intriguing structural complexity of molecules produced by natural organisms is uncontested. Natural scaffolds serve as an important basis for the development of molecules with broad applications, e.g., therapeutics or agrochemicals. Research in recent decades has demonstrated that by means of classic metabolite extraction from microbes only a small portion of natural products can be accessed. The use of genome mining and heterologous expression approaches represents a promising way to discover new natural compounds. In this paper we report the discovery of a novel cyclic pentapeptide called bonsecamin through the heterologous expression of a cryptic NRPS gene cluster from Streptomyces albus ssp. chlorinus NRRL B-24108 in Streptomyces albus Del14. The new compound was successfully isolated and structurally characterized using NMR. The minimal set of genes required for bonsecamin production was determined through bioinformatic analysis and gene deletion experiments. A biosynthetic route leading to the production of bonsecamin is proposed in this paper.
  • Special Issue "Adenovirus Pathogenesis".

    Arnberg, Niklas; Lenman, Annasara; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH,Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (MDPI, 2021-06-10)
    Excerpt Note: In lieu of an abstract, this is an excerpt from the first page. Adenovirus is a common cause of disease in humans and in animals [...]
  • Interdependent Impact of Lipoprotein Receptors and Lipid-Lowering Drugs on HCV Infectivity.

    Zapatero-Belinchón, Francisco J; Ötjengerdes, Rina; Sheldon, Julie; Schulte, Benjamin; Carriquí-Madroñal, Belén; Brogden, Graham; Arroyo-Fernández, Laura M; Vondran, Florian W R; Maasoumy, Benjamin; von Hahn, Thomas; et al. (MDPI, 2021-06-29)
    The HCV replication cycle is tightly associated with host lipid metabolism: Lipoprotein receptors SR-B1 and LDLr promote entry of HCV, replication is associated with the formation of lipid-rich membranous organelles and infectious particle assembly highjacks the very‑low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretory pathway. Hence, medications that interfere with the lipid metabolism of the cell, such as statins, may affect HCV infection. Here, we study the interplay between lipoprotein receptors, lipid homeostasis, and HCV infection by genetic and pharmacological interventions. We found that individual ablation of the lipoprotein receptors SR‑B1 and LDLr did not drastically affect HCV entry, replication, or infection, but double lipoprotein receptor knock-outs significantly reduced HCV infection. Furthermore, we could show that this effect was neither due to altered expression of additional HCV entry factors nor caused by changes in cellular cholesterol content. Strikingly, whereas lipid‑lowering drugs such as simvastatin or fenofibrate did not affect HCV entry or infection of immortalized hepatoma cells expressing SR-B1 and/or LDLr or primary human hepatocytes, ablation of these receptors rendered cells more susceptible to these drugs. Finally, we observed no significant differences between statin users and control groups with regards to HCV viral load in a cohort of HCV infected patients before and during HCV antiviral treatment. Interestingly, statin treatment, which blocks the mevalonate pathway leading to decreased cholesterol levels, was associated with mild but appreciable lower levels of liver damage markers before HCV therapy. Overall, our findings confirm the role of lipid homeostasis in HCV infection and highlight the importance of the mevalonate pathway in the HCV replication cycle.
  • Magnesium Complexes of Ladanein: A Beneficial Strategy for Stabilizing Polyphenolic Antivirals

    Martin‐Benlloch, Xavier; Lanfranchi, Don Antoine; Haid, Sibylle; Pietschmann, Thomas; Davioud‐Charvet, Elisabeth; Elhabiri, Mourad; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH,Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (Wiley-VCH, 2021-07-02)
    Ladanein (noted FOMe) is a potent antiviral flavone that was shown to be active on a broad spectrum of enveloped viruses. This 5,6,7-trihydroxylated flavone has, however, pharmacokinetic properties and a half-life time that need to be improved for possible therapeutic applications. We herein took advantage of the complexation properties of ladanein (Fe(III)) to evaluate its ability to bind Mg(II) (biologically relevant and redox inert ion) precursors prepared beforehand from various carboxylic acids. The 5,6,7-trihydroxylated pattern of ladanein and the ligands borne by the Mg(II) atom of the precursors were found to be essential for firm Mg(II) binding. In particular, a ternary Mg(II) complex of ladanein and pidolate (noted FOMe.MgPid) was isolated and considered for its pharmacokinetic and virucidal (Hepatitis C Virus - HCV) properties. Mg(II) complexation significantly improved the physico-chemical (solubility) and the pharmacokinetic properties (clearance, plasmatic concentration) of the flavone FOMe, while not altering its anti-HCV capacity.
  • Protecting-Group-Mediated Diastereoselective Synthesis of C4'-Methylated Uridine Analogs and Their Activity against the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Köllmann, Christoph; Sake, Svenja M; Jones, Peter G; Pietschmann, Thomas; Werz, Daniel B; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH,Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (American Chemical Society, 2020-02-26)
    Adjusting the protecting group strategy, from an alkyl ether to a bidentate ketal at the carbohydrate backbone of uridine, facilitates a switchable diastereoselective α- or β-C4'/C5'-spirocyclopropanation. Using these spirocyclopropanated nucleosides as key intermediates, we synthesized a variety of C4'-methylated d-ribose and l-lyxose-configured uridine derivatives by a base-mediated ring-opening of the spirocyclopropanol moiety. Investigations of antiviral activity against the human respiratory syncytial virus were carried out for selected derivatives, showing moderate activity.
  • Active equine parvovirus-hepatitis infection is most frequently detected in Austrian horses of advanced age.

    Badenhorst, Marcha; de Heus, Phebe; Auer, Angelika; Tegtmeyer, Birthe; Stang, Alexander; Dimmel, Katharina; Tichy, Alexander; Kubacki, Jakub; Bachofen, Claudia; Steinmann, Eike; et al. (Wiley, 2021-03-11)
    ckground: Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) research is in its infancy. Information regarding prevalence, geographical distribution, genetic diversity, pathogenesis and risk factors enhances understanding of this potentially fatal infection. Objectives: Determining the prevalence of EqPV-H in Austrian equids. Investigating factors increasing probability of infection, liver-associated biochemistry parameters, concurrent equine hepacivirus (EqHV) infection and phylogenetic analysis of Austrian EqPV-H variants. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Sera from 259 horses and 13 donkeys in Austria were analysed for anti-EqPV-H VP1-specific antibodies by luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) and EqPV-H DNA by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Associations between infection status, sex and age were described. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), bile acids and albumin concentrations were compared between horses with active infection and PCR-negative horses. PCR targeting partial EqPV-H NS1 was performed and phylogenetic analysis of Austrian EqPV-H variants was conducted. Complete coding sequences (CDS) of four Austrian variants were determined by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and compared with published sequences. Results: Horses' EqPV-H seroprevalence was 30.1% and DNA prevalence was 8.9%. One horse was co-infected with EqHV. Significantly, higher probability of active EqPV-H infection was identified in 16- to 31-year-old horses, compared with 1- to 8-year-old horses (P = 0.002; OR = 8.19; 95% CI = 1.79 to 37.50) and 9- to 15-year-old horses (P = 0.03; OR = 2.96; 95% CI = 1.08 to 8.17). Liver-associated plasma parameters were not significantly different between horses with active infection and controls. Austrian EqPV-H variants revealed high similarity to sequences worldwide. No evidence of EqPV-H was detected in donkeys. Main limitations: Equids' inclusion depended upon owner consent. There was only one sampling point per animal and the sample of donkeys was small. Conclusions: EqPV-H antibodies and DNA are frequently detected in Austrian horses, without associated hepatitis in horses with active infection. The risk of active EqPV-H infection increases with increasing age. Phylogenetic evidence supports close relation of EqPV-H variants globally, including Austrian variants.
  • Initial HCV infection of adult hepatocytes triggers a temporally structured transcriptional program containing diverse pro- and anti-viral elements.

    Tegtmeyer, Birthe; Vieyres, Gabrielle; Todt, Daniel; Lauber, Chris; Ginkel, Corinne; Engelmann, Michael; Herrmann, Maike; Pfaller, Christian K; Vondran, Florian W R; Broering, Ruth; et al. (ASM, 2021-03-03)
    Transcriptional profiling provides global snapshots of virus-mediated cellular reprogramming, which can simultaneously encompass pro- and antiviral components. To determine early transcriptional signatures associated with HCV infection of authentic target cells, we performed ex vivo infections of adult primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) from seven donors. Longitudinal sampling identified minimal gene dysregulation at six hours post infection (hpi). In contrast, at 72 hpi, massive increases in the breadth and magnitude of HCV-induced gene dysregulation were apparent, affecting gene classes associated with diverse biological processes. Comparison with HCV-induced transcriptional dysregulation in Huh-7.5 cells identified limited overlap between the two systems. Of note, in PHHs, HCV infection initiated broad upregulation of canonical interferon (IFN)-mediated defense programs, limiting viral RNA replication and abrogating virion release. We further find that constitutive expression of IRF1 in PHHs maintains a steady-state antiviral program in the absence of infection, which can additionally reduce HCV RNA translation and replication. We also detected infection-induced downregulation of ∼90 genes encoding components of the EIF2 translation initiation complex and ribosomal subunits in PHHs, consistent with a signature of translational shutoff. As HCV polyprotein translation occurs independently of the EIF2 complex, this process is likely pro-viral: only translation initiation of host transcripts is arrested. The combination of antiviral intrinsic and inducible immunity, balanced against pro-viral programs, including translational arrest, maintains HCV replication at a low-level in PHHs. This may ultimately keep HCV under the radar of extra-hepatocyte immune surveillance while initial infection is established, promoting tolerance, preventing clearance and facilitating progression to chronicity.IMPORTANCEAcute HCV infections are often asymptomatic and therefore frequently undiagnosed. We endeavored to recreate this understudied phase of HCV infection using explanted PHHs and monitored host responses to initial infection. We detected temporally distinct virus-induced perturbations in the transcriptional landscape, which were initially narrow but massively amplified in breadth and magnitude over time. At 72 hpi, we detected dysregulation of diverse gene programs, concurrently promoting both virus clearance and virus persistence. On the one hand, baseline expression of IRF1 combined with infection-induced upregulation of IFN-mediated effector genes suppresses virus propagation. On the other, we detect transcriptional signatures of host translational inhibition, which likely reduces processing of IFN-regulated gene transcripts and facilitates virus survival. Together, our data provide important insights into constitutive and virus-induced transcriptional programs in PHHs, and identifies simultaneous antagonistic dysregulation of pro-and anti-viral programs which may facilitate host tolerance and promote viral persistence.
  • Single-nucleotide variants in human CD81 influence hepatitis C virus infection of hepatoma cells.

    Alberione, María Pía; Moeller, Rebecca; Kirui, Jared; Ginkel, Corinne; Doepke, Mandy; Ströh, Luisa J; Machtens, Jan-Philipp; Pietschmann, Thomas; Gerold, Gisa; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH,Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (Springer, 2020-04-22)
    An estimated number of 71 million people are living with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection worldwide and 400,000 annual deaths are related to the infection. HCV entry into the hepatocytes is complex and involves several host factors. The tetraspanin human CD81 (hCD81) is one of the four essential entry factors and is composed of one large extracellular loop, one small extracellular loop, four transmembrane domains, one intracellular loop and two intracellular tails. The large extracellular loop interacts with the E2 glycoprotein of HCV. Regions outside the large extracellular loop (backbone) of hCD81 have a critical role in post-binding entry steps and determine susceptibility of hepatocytes to HCV. Here, we investigated the effect of five non-synonymous single-nucleotide variants in the backbone of hCD81 on HCV susceptibility. We generated cell lines that stably express the hCD81 variants and infected the cells using HCV pseudoparticles and cell culture-derived HCV. Our results show that all the tested hCD81 variants support HCV pseudoparticle entry with similar efficiency as wild-type hCD81. In contrast, variants A54V, V211M and M220I are less supportive to cell culture-derived HCV infection. This altered susceptibility is HCV genotype dependent and specifically affected the cell entry step. Our findings identify three hCD81 genetic variants that are impaired in their function as HCV host factors for specific viral genotypes. This study provides additional evidence that genetic host variation contributes to inter-individual differences in HCV infection and outcome.
  • A novel circulating tamiami mammarenavirus shows potential for zoonotic spillover.

    Moreno, Hector; Rastrojo, Alberto; Pryce, Rhys; Fedeli, Chiara; Zimmer, Gert; Bowden, Thomas A; Gerold, Gisa; Kunz, Stefan; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH,Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (PLOS, 2020-12-28)
    A detailed understanding of the mechanisms underlying the capacity of a virus to break the species barrier is crucial for pathogen surveillance and control. New World (NW) mammarenaviruses constitute a diverse group of rodent-borne pathogens that includes several causative agents of severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans. The ability of the NW mammarenaviral attachment glycoprotein (GP) to utilize human transferrin receptor 1 (hTfR1) as a primary entry receptor plays a key role in dictating zoonotic potential. The recent isolation of Tacaribe and lymphocytic choriominingitis mammarenaviruses from host-seeking ticks provided evidence for the presence of mammarenaviruses in arthropods, which are established vectors for numerous other viral pathogens. Here, using next generation sequencing to search for other mammarenaviruses in ticks, we identified a novel replication-competent strain of the NW mammarenavirus Tamiami (TAMV-FL), which we found capable of utilizing hTfR1 to enter mammalian cells. During isolation through serial passaging in mammalian immunocompetent cells, the quasispecies of TAMV-FL acquired and enriched mutations leading to the amino acid changes N151K and D156N, within GP. Cell entry studies revealed that both substitutions, N151K and D156N, increased dependence of the virus on hTfR1 and binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Moreover, we show that the substituted residues likely map to the sterically constrained trimeric axis of GP, and facilitate viral fusion at a lower pH, resulting in viral egress from later endosomal compartments. In summary, we identify and characterize a naturally occurring TAMV strain (TAMV-FL) within ticks that is able to utilize hTfR1. The TAMV-FL significantly diverged from previous TAMV isolates, demonstrating that TAMV quasispecies exhibit striking genetic plasticity that may facilitate zoonotic spillover and rapid adaptation to new hosts.
  • Heparan Sulfate Is a Cellular Receptor for Enteric Human Adenoviruses.

    Rajan, Anandi; Palm, Elin; Trulsson, Fredrik; Mundigl, Sarah; Becker, Miriam; Persson, B David; Frängsmyr, Lars; Lenman, Annasara; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH,Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (MDPI, 2021-02-14)
    Human adenovirus (HAdV)-F40 and -F41 are leading causes of diarrhea and diarrhea-associated mortality in children under the age of five, but the mechanisms by which they infect host cells are poorly understood. HAdVs initiate infection through interactions between the knob domain of the fiber capsid protein and host cell receptors. Unlike most other HAdVs, HAdV-F40 and -F41 possess two different fiber proteins-a long fiber and a short fiber. Whereas the long fiber binds to the Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), no binding partners have been identified for the short fiber. In this study, we identified heparan sulfate (HS) as an interaction partner for the short fiber of enteric HAdVs. We demonstrate that exposure to acidic pH, which mimics the environment of the stomach, inactivates the interaction of enteric adenovirus with CAR. However, the short fiber:HS interaction is resistant to and even enhanced by acidic pH, which allows attachment to host cells. Our results suggest a switch in receptor usage of enteric HAdVs after exposure to acidic pH and add to the understanding of the function of the short fibers. These results may also be useful for antiviral drug development and the utilization of enteric HAdVs for clinical applications such as vaccine development.
  • Antiviral Actions of 25-Hydroxycholesterol in Fish Vary With the Virus-Host Combination.

    Adamek, Mikolaj; Davies, Jonathan; Beck, Alexander; Jordan, Lisa; Becker, Anna M; Mojzesz, Miriam; Rakus, Krzysztof; Rumiac, Typhaine; Collet, Bertrand; Brogden, Graham; et al. (Frontiers, 2021-02-24)
    Cholesterol is essential for building and maintaining cell membranes and is critical for several steps in the replication cycle of viruses, especially for enveloped viruses. In mammalian cells virus infections lead to the accumulation of the oxysterol 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC), an antiviral factor, which is produced from cholesterol by the cholesterol 25 hydroxylase (CH25H). Antiviral responses based on CH25H are not well studied in fish. Therefore, in the present study putative genes encoding for CH25H were identified and amplified in common carp and rainbow trout cells and an HPLC-MS method was applied for determination of oxysterol concentrations in these cells under virus infection. Our results give some evidence that the activation of CH25H could be a part of the antiviral response against a broad spectrum of viruses infecting fish, in both common carp and rainbow trout cells in vitro. Quantification of oxysterols showed that fibroblastic cells are capable of producing 25HC and its metabolite 7α,25diHC. The oxysterol 25HC showed an antiviral activity by blocking the entry of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) into KFC cells, but not spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) or common carp paramyxovirus (Para) in the same cells, or viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) into RTG-2 cells. Despite the fact that the CH25H based antiviral response coincides with type I IFN responses, the stimulation of salmonid cells with recombinant type I IFN proteins from rainbow trout could not induce ch25h_b gene expression. This provided further evidence, that the CH25H-response is not type I IFN dependent. Interestingly, the susceptibility of CyHV-3 to 25HC is counteracted by a downregulation of the expression of the ch25h_b gene in carp fibroblasts during CyHV-3 infection. This shows a unique interplay between oxysterol based immune responses and immunomodulatory abilities of certain viruses.
  • The structure of enteric human adenovirus 41-A leading cause of diarrhea in children.

    Rafie, K; Lenman, A; Fuchs, J; Rajan, A; Arnberg, N; Carlson, L-A; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH,Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2021-01-08)
    Human adenovirus (HAdV) types F40 and F41 are a prominent cause of diarrhea and diarrhea-associated mortality in young children worldwide. These enteric HAdVs differ notably in tissue tropism and pathogenicity from respiratory and ocular adenoviruses, but the structural basis for this divergence has been unknown. Here, we present the first structure of an enteric HAdV-HAdV-F41-determined by cryo-electron microscopy to a resolution of 3.8 Å. The structure reveals extensive alterations to the virion exterior as compared to nonenteric HAdVs, including a unique arrangement of capsid protein IX. The structure also provides new insights into conserved aspects of HAdV architecture such as a proposed location of core protein V, which links the viral DNA to the capsid, and assembly-induced conformational changes in the penton base protein. Our findings provide the structural basis for adaptation of enteric HAdVs to a fundamentally different tissue tropism.
  • In Vitro Evaluation of a Phage Cocktail Controlling Infections with Escherichia coli.

    Korf, Imke H E; Kittler, Sophie; Bierbrodt, Anna; Mengden, Ruth; Rohde, Christine; Rohde, Manfred; Kroj, Andrea; Lehnherr, Tatiana; Fruth, Angelika; Flieger, Antje; et al. (MDPI, 2020-12-19)
    Worldwide, poultry industry suffers from infections caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli. Therapeutic failure due to resistant bacteria is of increasing concern and poses a threat to human and animal health. This causes a high demand to find alternatives to fight bacterial infections in animal farming. Bacteriophages are being especially considered for the control of multi-drug resistant bacteria due to their high specificity and lack of serious side effects. Therefore, the study aimed on characterizing phages and composing a phage cocktail suitable for the prevention of infections with E. coli. Six phages were isolated or selected from our collections and characterized individually and in combination with regard to host range, stability, reproduction, and efficacy in vitro. The cocktail consisting of six phages was able to inhibit formation of biofilms by some E. coli strains but not by all. Phage-resistant variants arose when bacterial cells were challenged with a single phage but not when challenged by a combination of four or six phages. Resistant variants arising showed changes in carbon metabolism and/or motility. Genomic comparison of wild type and phage-resistant mutant E28.G28R3 revealed a deletion of several genes putatively involved in phage adsorption and infection.

View more