• Transcriptome-wide analysis uncovers the targets of the RNA-binding protein MSI2 and effects of MSI2's RNA-binding activity on IL-6 signaling.

      Duggimpudi, Sujitha; Kloetgen, Andreas; Maney, Sathish Kumar; Münch, Philipp C; Hezaveh, Kebria; Shaykhalishahi, Hamed; Hoyer, Wolfgang; McHardy, Alice C; Lang, Philipp A; Borkhardt, Arndt; et al. (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2018-08-20)
      The RNA-binding protein Musashi 2 (MSI2) has emerged as an important regulator in cancer initiation, progression, and drug resistance. Translocations and deregulation of the MSI2 gene are diagnostic of certain cancers, including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with translocation t(7;17), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with translocation t(10;17), and some cases of B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pB-ALL). To better understand the function of MSI2 in leukemia, the mRNA targets that are bound and regulated by MSI2 and their MSI2-binding motifs need to be identified. To this end, using photoactivatable ribonucleoside cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) and the multiple EM for motif elicitation (MEME) analysis tool, here we identified MSI2's mRNA targets and the consensus RNA-recognition element (RRE) motif recognized by MSI2 (UUAG). Of note, MSI2 knockdown altered the expression of several genes with roles in eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling pathways. We also show that MSI2 regulates classic interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling by promoting the degradation of the mRNA of IL-6 signal transducer (IL6ST or GP130), which, in turn, affected the phosphorylation statuses of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK. In summary, we have identified multiple MSI2-regulated mRNAs and provided evidence that MSI2 controls IL6ST activity that control oncogenic signaling networks. Our findings may help inform strategies for unraveling the role of MSI2 in leukemia to pave the way for the development of targeted therapies.
    • YBX1 Indirectly Targets Heterochromatin-Repressed Inflammatory Response-Related Apoptosis Genes through Regulating CBX5 mRNA.

      Kloetgen, Andreas; Duggimpudi, Sujitha; Schuschel, Konstantin; Hezaveh, Kebria; Picard, Daniel; Schaal, Heiner; Remke, Marc; Klusmann, Jan-Henning; Borkhardt, Arndt; McHardy, Alice C; et al. (MDPI, 2020-06-23)
      Medulloblastomas arise from undifferentiated precursor cells in the cerebellum and account for about 20% of all solid brain tumors during childhood; standard therapies include radiation and chemotherapy, which oftentimes come with severe impairment of the cognitive development of the young patients. Here, we show that the posttranscriptional regulator Y-box binding protein 1 (YBX1), a DNA- and RNA-binding protein, acts as an oncogene in medulloblastomas by regulating cellular survival and apoptosis. We observed different cellular responses upon YBX1 knockdown in several medulloblastoma cell lines, with significantly altered transcription and subsequent apoptosis rates. Mechanistically, PAR-CLIP for YBX1 and integration with RNA-Seq data uncovered direct posttranscriptional control of the heterochromatin-associated gene CBX5; upon YBX1 knockdown and subsequent CBX5 mRNA instability, heterochromatin-regulated genes involved in inflammatory response, apoptosis and death receptor signaling were de-repressed. Thus, YBX1 acts as an oncogene in medulloblastoma through indirect transcriptional regulation of inflammatory genes regulating apoptosis and represents a promising novel therapeutic target in this tumor entity.