Recent Submissions

  • Biogenic and Biomimetic Carriers as Versatile Transporters To Treat Infections.

    Goes, Adriely; Fuhrmann, Gregor; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (American Chemical Society, 2018-03-29)
    Biogenic and biomimetic therapeutics are a relatively new class of systems that are of physiological origin and/or take advantage of natural pathways or aim at mimicking these to improve selective interaction with target tissue. The number of biogenic and bioengineered avenues for drug therapy and diagnostics has multiplied over the past years for many applications, indicating the high expectations associated with this biological route. Nevertheless, the use of "bio"-related approaches for treating or diagnosing infectious diseases is still rare. Given that infectious diseases, in particular bacterial resistances, are seriously on the rise, there is an urgent need to take advantage of biogenic and bioengineered systems to target these challenges. In this manuscript, we first give a definition of the various "bio" terms, including biogenic, biomimetic, bioinspired, and bioengineered and we highlight them using tangible applications in the field of infectious diseases. Our examples cover cell-derived systems, including bioengineered bacteria, virus-like particles, and different cell-mimetics. Moreover, we discuss natural and bioengineered particles such as extracellular vesicles from mammalian and bacterial sources and liposomes. A concluding section outlines the potential for biomaterial-related avenues to overcome challenges associated with difficult-to-treat infections. We critically discuss benefits and risks for these applications and give an outlook on the future of biogenic engineering.
  • Squalenyl Hydrogen Sulfate Nanoparticles for Simultaneous Delivery of Tobramycin and an Alkylquinolone Quorum Sensing Inhibitor Enable the Eradication of P. aeruginosa Biofilm Infections.

    Ho, Duy-Khiet; Murgia, Xabier; de Rossi, Chiara; Christmann, Rebekka; Hüfner de Mello Martins, Antonio G; Koch, Marcus; Andreas, Anastasia; Herrmann, Jennifer; Müller, Rolf; Empting, Martin; et al. (Wiley, 2020-04-03)
    Elimination of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infections is challenging to accomplish with antibiotic therapies, mainly due to resistance mechanisms. Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) interfering with biofilm formation can thus complement antibiotics. For simultaneous and improved delivery of both active agents to the infection sites, self-assembling nanoparticles of a newly synthesized squalenyl hydrogen sulfate (SqNPs) were prepared. These nanocarriers allowed for remarkably high loading capacities of hydrophilic antibiotic tobramycin (Tob) and a novel lipophilic QSI at 30 % and circa 10 %, respectively. The drug-loaded SqNPs showed improved biofilm penetration and enhanced efficacy in relevant biological barriers (mucin/human tracheal mucus, biofilm), leading to complete eradication of PA biofilms at circa 16-fold lower Tob concentration than Tob alone. This study offers a viable therapy optimization and invigorates the research and development of QSIs for clinical use.
  • Liver-derived extracellular vesicles: A cell by cell overview to isolation and characterization practices.

    Zivko, Cristina; Fuhrmann, Gregor; Luciani, Paola; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Elsevier, 2020-02-19)
    BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a diverse group of membrane-bound nanovesicles potentially released by every cell. With the liver's unique ensemble of cells and its fundamental physiological tasks, elucidating the role of EV-mediated hepatic cellular crosstalk and their role in different pathologies has been gaining the attention of many scientists. SCOPE OF REVIEW: The present review shifts the perspective into practice: we aim to critically discuss the methods used to purify and to biochemically analyse EVs from specific liver resident cells, including hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells, cholangiocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, Kupffer cells, liver stem cells. The review offers a reference guide to current approaches. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: Strategies for EV isolation and characterization are as varied as the research groups performing them. We present main advantages and disadvantages for the methods, highlighting common causes for concern, such as FBS handling, reporting of cell viability, EV yield and storage, differences in differential centrifugations, suboptimal method descriptions, and method transferability. We both looked at how adaptable the research between human and rodent cells in vitro is, and also assessed how well either of them translates to ex vivo settings. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: We reviewed methodological practices for the isolation and analysis of liver-derived EVs, making a cell type specific user guide that shows where to start, what has worked so far and to what extent. We critically discussed room for improvement, placing a particular focus on working towards a potential standardization of methods.
  • Advancing human pulmonary disease models in preclinical research: opportunities for lung-on-chips..

    Artzy-Schnirman, Arbel; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Sznitman, Josué; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Taylor&Francis, 2020-03-11)
    [No abstracr available]
  • In vitro characterization and in vivo comparison of the pulmonary outcomes of Poractant alfa and Calsurf in ventilated preterm rabbits.

    Guo, Xiaojing; Luo, Siwei; Amidani, Davide; Rivetti, Claudio; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Pioselli, Barbara; Catinella, Silvia; Murgia, Xabi; Salomone, Fabrizio; Xu, Yaling; et al. (PLOS, 2020-03-13)
    Poractant alfa and Calsurf are two natural surfactants widely used in China for the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, which are extracted from porcine and calf lungs, respectively. The purpose of this experimental study was to compare their in vitro characteristics and in vivo effects in the improvement of pulmonary function and protection of lung injury. The biophysical properties, ultrastructure, and lipid composition of both surfactant preparations were respectively analysed in vitro by means of Langmuir-Blodgett trough (LBT), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC-MS). Then, as core pharmacological activity, both head-to-head (100 and 200 mg/kg for both surfactants) and licensed dose comparisons (70 mg/kg Calsurf vs. 200 mg/kg Poractant alfa) between the two surfactants were conducted as prophylaxis in preterm rabbits with primary surfactant deficiency, assessing survival time and rate and dynamic compliance of the respiratory system (Cdyn). Intrapulmonary surfactant pools, morphometric volume density as alveolar expansion (Vv), and lung injury scores were determined post mortem. AFM and LC-MS analysis revealed qualitative differences in the ultrastructure as well as in the lipid composition of both preparations. Calsurf showed a longer plateau region of the LBT isotherm and lower film compressibility. In vivo, both surfactant preparations improved Cdyn at any dose, although maximum benefits in terms of Vv and intrapulmonary surfactant pools were seen with the 200 mg/kg dose in both surfactants. The group of animals treated with 200 mg/kg of Poractant alfa showed a prolonged survival time and rate compared to untreated but ventilated controls, and significantly ameliorated lung injury compared to Calsurf at any dose, including 200 mg/kg. The overall outcomes suggest the pulmonary effects to be dose dependent for both preparations. The group of animals treated with 200 mg/kg of Poractant alfa showed a significant reduction of mortality. Compared to Calsurf, Poractant alfa exerted better effects if licensed doses were compared, which requires further investigation.
  • Streptococcal Extracellular Membrane Vesicles Are Rapidly Internalized by Immune Cells and Alter Their Cytokine Release.

    Mehanny, Mina; Koch, Marcus; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Fuhrmann, Gregor; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Frontiers, 2020-02-14)
    Extracellular vesicles are membranous structures shed by almost every living cell. Bacterial gram-negative outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and gram-positive membrane vesicles (MVs) play important roles in adaptation to the surrounding environment, cellular components' exchange, transfer of antigens and virulence factors, and infection propagation. Streptococcus pneumoniae is considered one of the priority pathogens, with a global health impact due to the increase in infection burden and growing antibiotic resistance. We isolated MVs produced from the S. pneumoniae reference strain (R6) and purified them via size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to remove soluble protein impurities. We characterized the isolated MVs by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and measured their particle size distribution and concentration. Isolated MVs showed a mean particle size range of 130-160 nm and a particle yield of around 1012 particles per milliliter. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) images revealed a very heterogeneous nature of isolated MVs with a broad size range and various morphologies, arrangements, and contents. We incubated streptococcal MVs with several mammalian somatic cells, namely, human lung epithelial A549 and human keratinocytes HaCaT cell lines, and immune cells including differentiated macrophage-like dTHP-1 and murine dendritic DC2.4 cell lines. All cell lines displayed excellent viability profile and negligible cytotoxicity after 24-h incubation with MVs at concentrations reaching 106 MVs per cell (somatic cells) and 105 MVs per cell (immune cells). We evaluated the uptake of fluorescently labeled MVs into these four cell lines, using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Dendritic cells demonstrated prompt uptake after 30-min incubation, whereas other cell lines showed increasing uptake after 2-h incubation and almost complete colocalization/internalization of MVs after only 4-h incubation. We assessed the influence of streptococcal MVs on antigen-presenting cells, e.g., dendritic cells, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and observed enhanced release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a slight increase of interleukin (IL)-10 secretion, and no detectable effect on IL-12. Our study provides a better understanding of gram-positive streptococcal MVs and shows their potential to elicit a protective immune response. Therefore, they could offer an innovative avenue for safe and effective cell-free vaccination against pneumococcal infections.
  • Diffusion and transport of extracellular vesicles.

    Fuhrmann, Gregor; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Springer Nature, 2020-02-17)
    Cell-derived extracellular vesicles are important intercellular communicators involved in many biological processes and diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, but, thus far, how they navigate within complex extracellular matrices has been poorly understood.
  • Safety assessment of excipients (SAFE) for orally inhaled drug products.

    Metz, Julia K; Scharnowske, Lara; Hans, Fabian; Schnur, Sabrina; Knoth, Katharina; Zimmer, Horst; Limberger, Markus; Groß, Henrik; Lehr, Claus Michael; Hittinger, Marius; et al. (Springer, 2020-01-29)
    The development of new orally inhaled drug products requires the demonstration of safety which must be proven in animal experiments. New in vitro methods may replace, or at least reduce, these animal experiments provided they are able to correctly predict the safety or eventual toxicity in humans. However, the challenge is to link human in vitro data to human in vivo data. We here present a new approach to the safety assessment of excipients (SAFE) for pulmonary drug delivery. The SAFE model is based on a dose response curve of 23 excipients tested on the human pulmonary epithelial cell lines A549 and Calu-3. The resulting in vitro IC50 values were correlated with the FDA-approved concentration in pharmaceutical products for either pulmonary (if available) or parenteral administration. Setting a threshold of 0.1% (1 mg/mL) for either value yielded four safety classes, allowed to link IC50 data as measured on human cell cultures in vitro with the concentrations of the same compounds in FDA-approved drug products. The necessary in vitro data for novel excipients can be easily generated while the SAFE approach allows putting them in the context for eventual use in human pulmonary drug products. Excipients, that are most likely not safe for use in humans, can be early excluded from further pharmaceutical development. The SAFE approach helps thus to avoid unnecessary animal experiments.
  • Coupling quaternary ammonium surfactants to the surface of liposomes improves both antibacterial efficacy and host cell biocompatibility

    Montefusco-Pereira, Carlos V.; Formicola, Beatrice; Goes, Adriely; Re, Francesca; Marrano, Claudia A.; Mantegazza, Francesco; Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Fuhrmann, Gregor; Caneva, Enrico; Nicotra, Francesco; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-04)
    By functionalizing the surface of PEG-liposomes with linkers bearing quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), we generated novel bacteria disruptors with anti-adhesive properties and reduced cytotoxicity compared to free QACs. Furthermore, QAC-functionalized liposomes are a promising platform for future drug encapsulation. The QAC (11-mercaptoundecyl)-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (MTAB) was attached to maleimide-functionalized liposomes (DSPE-PEG) via thiol linker. The MTAB-functionalized liposomes were physicochemically characterized and their biological activity, in terms of anti-adherence activity and biofilm prevention in Escherichia coli were assessed. The results showed that MTAB-functionalized liposomes inhibit bacterial adherence and biofilm formation while reducing MTAB toxicity.
  • Myxobacteria-Derived Outer Membrane Vesicles: Potential Applicability Against Intracellular Infections.

    Goes, Adriely; Lapuhs, Philipp; Kuhn, Thomas; Schulz, Eilien; Richter, Robert; Panter, Fabian; Dahlem, Charlotte; Koch, Marcus; Garcia, Ronald; Kiemer, Alexandra K; et al. (MDPI, 2020-01-12)
    In 2019, it was estimated that 2.5 million people die from lower tract respiratory infections annually. One of the main causes of these infections is Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium that can invade and survive within mammalian cells. S. aureus intracellular infections are difficult to treat because several classes of antibiotics are unable to permeate through the cell wall and reach the pathogen. This condition increases the need for new therapeutic avenues, able to deliver antibiotics efficiently. In this work, we obtained outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from the myxobacteria Cystobacter velatus strain Cbv34 and Cystobacter ferrugineus strain Cbfe23, that are naturally antimicrobial, to target intracellular infections, and investigated how they can affect the viability of epithelial and macrophage cell lines. We evaluated by cytometric bead array whether they induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in blood immune cells. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry, we also investigated their interaction and uptake into mammalian cells. Finally, we studied the effect of OMVs on planktonic and intracellular S. aureus. We found that while Cbv34 OMVs were not cytotoxic to cells at any concentration tested, Cbfe23 OMVs affected the viability of macrophages, leading to a 50% decrease at a concentration of 125,000 OMVs/cell. We observed only little to moderate stimulation of release of TNF-alpha, IL-8, IL-6 and IL-1beta by both OMVs. Cbfe23 OMVs have better interaction with the cells than Cbv34 OMVs, being taken up faster by them, but both seem to remain mostly on the cell surface after 24 h of incubation. This, however, did not impair their bacteriostatic activity against intracellular S. aureus. In this study, we provide an important basis for implementing OMVs in the treatment of intracellular infections.
  • Toll-Like Receptor 2 Release by Macrophages: An Anti-inflammatory Program Induced by Glucocorticoids and Lipopolysaccharide.

    Hoppstädter, Jessica; Dembek, Anna; Linnenberger, Rebecca; Dahlem, Charlotte; Barghash, Ahmad; Fecher-Trost, Claudia; Fuhrmann, Gregor; Koch, Marcus; Kraegeloh, Annette; Huwer, Hanno; et al. (Frontiers, 2019-01-01)
    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely prescribed therapeutics for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, and endogenous GCs play a key role in immune regulation. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) enable innate immune cells, such as macrophages, to recognize a wide variety of microbial ligands, thereby promoting inflammation. The interaction of GCs with macrophages in the immunosuppressive resolution phase upon prolonged TLR activation is widely unknown. Treatment of human alveolar macrophages (AMs) with the synthetic GC dexamethasone (Dex) did not alter the expression of TLRs -1, -4, and -6. In contrast, TLR2 was upregulated in a GC receptor-dependent manner, as shown by Western blot and qPCR. Furthermore, long-term lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure mimicking immunosuppression in the resolution phase of inflammation synergistically increased Dex-mediated TLR2 upregulation. Analyses of publicly available datasets suggested that TLR2 is induced during the resolution phase of inflammatory diseases, i.e., under conditions associated with high endogenous GC production. TLR2 induction did not enhance TLR2 signaling, as indicated by reduced cytokine production after treatment with TLR2 ligands in Dex- and/or LPS-primed AMs. Thus, we hypothesized that the upregulated membrane-bound TLR2 might serve as a precursor for soluble TLR2 (sTLR2), known to antagonize TLR2-dependent cell actions. Supernatants of LPS/Dex-primed macrophages contained sTLR2, as demonstrated by Western blot analysis. Activation of metalloproteinases resulted in enhanced sTLR2 shedding. Additionally, we detected full-length TLR2 and assumed that this might be due to the production of TLR2-containing extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs from macrophage supernatants were isolated by sequential centrifugation. Both untreated and LPS/Dex-treated cells produced vesicles of various sizes and shapes, as shown by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. These vesicles were identified as the source of full-length TLR2 in macrophage supernatants by Western blot and mass spectrometry. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that TLR2-containing EVs were able to bind the TLR2 ligand Pam3CSK4. In addition, the presence of EVs reduced inflammatory responses in Pam3CSK4-treated endothelial cells and HEK Dual reporter cells, demonstrating that TLR2-EVs can act as decoy receptors. In summary, our data show that sTLR2 and full-length TLR2 are released by macrophages under anti-inflammatory conditions, which may contribute to GC-induced immunosuppression.
  • Circulating Lipoproteins: A Trojan Horse Guiding Squalenoylated Drugs to LDL-Accumulating Cancer Cells.

    Sobot, Dunja; Mura, Simona; Rouquette, Marie; Vukosavljevic, Branko; Cayre, Fanny; Buchy, Eric; Pieters, Grégory; Garcia-Argote, Sébastien; Windbergs, Maike; Desmaële, Didier; et al. (2017-07-05)
    Selective delivery of anticancer drugs to rapidly growing cancercells can be achieved by taking advantage of their high receptor-mediated uptake of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). Indeed, wehave recently discovered that nanoparticles made of the squa-lene derivative of the anticancer agent gemcitabine (SQGem)strongly interacted with the LDLs in the human blood. In thepresent study, we showed both in vitro and in vivo that suchinteraction led to the preferential accumulation of SQGem incancer cells (MDA-MB-231) with high LDL receptor expression.As a result, an improved pharmacological activity has beenobserved in MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice, an experi-mental model with a low sensitivity to gemcitabine. Accord-ingly, we proved that the use of squalene moieties not onlyinduced the gemcitabine insertion into lipoproteins, but thatit could also be exploited to indirectly target cancer cells in vivo.
  • PLGA nanocapsules improve the delivery of clarithromycin to kill intracellular Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium abscessus.

    Anversa Dimer, Frantiescoli; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Goes, Adriely; Cirnski, Katarina; Herrmann, Jennifer; Schmitt, Viktoria; Pätzold, Linda; Abed, Nadia; de Rossi, Chiara; Bischoff, Markus; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-11-18)
    Drug delivery systems are promising for targeting antibiotics directly to infected tissues. To reach intracellular Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium abscessus, we encapsulated clarithromycin in PLGA nanocapsules, suitable for aerosol delivery by nebulization of an aqueous dispersion. Compared to the same dose of free clarithromycin, nanoencapsulation reduced 1000 times the number of intracellular S. aureus in vitro. In RAW cells, while untreated S. aureus was located in acidic compartments, the treated ones were mostly situated in non-acidic compartments. Clarithromycin-nanocapsules were also effective against M. abscessus (70-80% killing efficacy). The activity of clarithromycin-nanocapsules against S. aureus was also confirmed in vivo, using a murine wound model as well as in zebrafish. The permeability of clarithromycin-nanocapsules across Calu-3 monolayers increased in comparison to the free drug, suggesting an improved delivery to sub-epithelial tissues. Thus, clarithromycin-nanocapsules are a promising strategy to target intracellular S. aureus and M. abscessus.
  • Hot EVs - how temperature affects extracellular vesicles.

    Schulz, Eilien; Karagianni, Anna; Koch, Marcus; Fuhrmann, Gregor; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Elsevier, 2019-12-02)
    In recent years, extracellular vesicles (EVs) and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have become an extensive and diverse field of research. They hold potential as diagnostic markers, therapeutics and for fundamental biological understanding. Despite ongoing studies, numerous information regarding function, content and stability of EVs remains unclear. If EVs and OMVs ought to be used as therapeutics and in clinical environments, their stability is one of the most important factors to be considered. Especially for formulation development, EVs and OMVs need to be stable at higher temperatures. To the best of our knowledge, very little work has been published regarding heat stability of neither EVs nor OMVs. In the present study, we investigated B lymphoblastoid cell-derived EVs and OMVs derived from myxobacterial species Sorangiineae as model vesicles. We exposed the vesicles to 37 °C, 50 °C, 70 °C and 100 °C for 1 h, 6 h and 24 h, and also autoclaved them. Interestingly, physico-chemical analyses such as size, particle concentration and protein concentration showed minor alterations, particularly at 37 °C. Flow cytometry analysis emphasised these results suggesting that after heat impact, EVs and OMVs were still able to be taken up by macrophage-like dTHP-1 cells. These data indicate that both mammalian and bacterial vesicles show intrinsic stability at physiological temperature. Our findings are important to consider for vesicle formulation and for advanced bioengineering approaches.
  • Extracellular Vesicles-Connecting Kingdoms.

    Woith, Eric; Fuhrmann, Gregor; Melzig, Matthias F; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (MDPI, 2019-11-14)
    It is known that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are shed from cells of almost every type of cell or organism, showing their ubiquity in all empires of life. EVs are defined as naturally released particles from cells, delimited by a lipid bilayer, and cannot replicate. These nano- to micrometer scaled spheres shuttle a set of bioactive molecules. EVs are of great interest as vehicles for drug targeting and in fundamental biological research, but in vitro culture of animal cells usually achieves only small yields. The exploration of other biological kingdoms promises comprehensive knowledge on EVs broadening the opportunities for basic understanding and therapeutic use. Thus, plants might be sustainable biofactories producing nontoxic and highly specific nanovectors, whereas bacterial and fungal EVs are promising vaccines for the prevention of infectious diseases. Importantly, EVs from different eukaryotic and prokaryotic kingdoms are involved in many processes including host-pathogen interactions, spreading of resistances, and plant diseases. More extensive knowledge of inter-species and interkingdom regulation could provide advantages for preventing and treating pests and pathogens. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of EVs derived from eukaryota and prokaryota and we discuss how better understanding of their intercommunication role provides opportunities for both fundamental and applied biology.
  • The synergistic effect of chlorotoxin-mApoE in boosting drug-loaded liposomes across the BBB.

    Formicola, Beatrice; Dal Magro, Roberta; Montefusco-Pereira, Carlos V; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Koch, Marcus; Russo, Laura; Grasso, Gianvito; Deriu, Marco A; Danani, Andrea; Bourdoulous, Sandrine; et al. (BMC, 2019-11-11)
    We designed liposomes dually functionalized with ApoE-derived peptide (mApoE) and chlorotoxin (ClTx) to improve their blood-brain barrier (BBB) crossing. Our results demonstrated the synergistic activity of ClTx-mApoE in boosting doxorubicin-loaded liposomes across the BBB, keeping the anti-tumour activity of the drug loaded: mApoE acts promoting cellular uptake, while ClTx promotes exocytosis of liposomes.
  • Capturing the Onset of Bacterial Pulmonary Infection in Acini-On-Chips

    Artzy-Schnirman, Arbel; Zidan, Hikaia; Elias-Kirma, Shani; Ben-Porat, Lee; Tenenbaum-Katan, Janna; Carius, Patrick; Fishler, Ramy; Schneider-Daum, Nicole; Lehr, Claus Michael; Sznitman, Josué (Wiley-VCH, 2019-09-01)
  • Appraisal on the wound healing potential of Melaleuca alternifolia and Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil-loaded chitosan topical preparations.

    Labib, Rola M; Ayoub, Iriny M; Michel, Haidy E; Mehanny, Mina; Kamil, Verena; Hany, Meryl; Magdy, Mirette; Moataz, Aya; Maged, Boula; Mohamed, Ahmed; et al. (PLOS, 2019-01-01)
    The present study investigates the wound healing potential of three chitosan-based topical preparations loaded with either tea tree essential oil, rosemary essential oil or a mixture of both oils in vivo. Essential oils of M. alternifolia and R. officinalis were analyzed using GC/MS. Essential oil-loaded chitosan topical preparations were formulated. Wound healing potential was evaluated in vivo using an excision wound model in rats. GC/MS analysis of M. alternifolia and R. officinalis essential oils revealed richness in oxygenated monoterpenes, representing 51.06% and 69.61% of the total oil composition, respectively. Topical application of chitosan-based formulation loaded with a mixture of tea tree and rosemary oils resulted in a significant increase in wound contraction percentage compared to either group treated with individual essential oils and the untreated group. Histopathological examination revealed that topical application of tea tree and rosemary oil combination demonstrated complete re-epithelialization associated with activated hair follicles. The high percentage of oxygenated monoterpenes in both essential oils play an important role in the antioxidant and wound healing potential observed herein. Incorporation of tea tree and rosemary essential oils in chitosan-based preparations in appropriate combination could efficiently promote different stages of wound healing.
  • OCTN2-mediated acetyl-l-carnitine transport in human pulmonary epithelial cells in vitro

    Salomon, Johanna J.; Gausterer, Julia C.; Selo, Mohammed Ali; Hosoya, Ken Ichi; Huwer, Hanno; Schneider-Daum, Nicole; Lehr, Claus Michael; Ehrhardt, Carsten; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (MPDI, 2019-08-01)
    The carnitine transporter OCTN2 is associated with asthma and other inflammatory diseases. The aims of this work were (i) to determine carnitine uptake into freshly isolated human alveolar type I (ATI)-like epithelial cells in primary culture, (ii) to compare the kinetics of carnitine uptake between respiratory epithelial in vitro cell models, and (iii) to establish whether any cell line was a suitable model for studies of carnitine transport at the air-blood barrier. Levels of time-dependent [3H]-acetyl-l-carnitine uptake were similar in ATI-like, NCl-H441, and Calu-3 epithelial cells, whereas uptake into A549 cells was ~5 times higher. Uptake inhibition was more pronounced by OCTN2 modulators, such as l-Carnitine and verapamil, in ATI-like primary epithelial cells compared to NCl-H441 and Calu-3 epithelial cells. Our findings suggest that OCTN2 is involved in the cellular uptake of acetyl-l-carnitine at the alveolar epithelium and that none of the tested cell lines are optimal surrogates for primary cells.
  • Preferential uptake of chitosan-coated PLGA nanoparticles by primary human antigen presenting cells.

    Durán, Verónica; Yasar, Hanzey; Becker, Jennifer; Thiyagarajan, Durairaj; Loretz, Brigitta; Kalinke, Ulrich; Lehr, Claus-Michael; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Elsevier, 2019-07-31)
    Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NP) made from poly (lactid-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) and chitosan (CS) hold promise as innovative formulations for targeted delivery. Since interactions of such NP with primary human immune cells have not been characterized, yet, here we assessed the effect of PLGA or CS-PLGA NP treatment on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as well as on monocyte-derived DC (moDC). Amongst PBMC, antigen presenting cells (APC) showed higher uptake of both NP preparations than lymphocytes. Furthermore, moDC internalized CS-PLGA NP more efficiently than PLGA NP, presumably because of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Consequently, CS-PLGA NP were delivered mostly to endosomal compartments, whereas PLGA NP primarily ended up in lysosomes. Thus, CS-PLGA NP confer enhanced delivery to endosomal compartments of APC, offering new therapeutic options to either induce or modulate APC function and to inhibit pathogens that preferentially infect APC.

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