Recent Submissions

  • Second-generation lung-on-a-chip with an array of stretchable alveoli made with a biological membrane.

    Zamprogno, Pauline; Wüthrich, Simon; Achenbach, Sven; Thoma, Giuditta; Stucki, Janick D; Hobi, Nina; Schneider-Daum, Nicole; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Huwer, Hanno; Geiser, Thomas; et al. (Nature Pulishing Group, 2021-02-05)
    The air-blood barrier with its complex architecture and dynamic environment is difficult to mimic in vitro. Lung-on-a-chips enable mimicking the breathing movements using a thin, stretchable PDMS membrane. However, they fail to reproduce the characteristic alveoli network as well as the biochemical and physical properties of the alveolar basal membrane. Here, we present a lung-on-a-chip, based on a biological, stretchable and biodegradable membrane made of collagen and elastin, that emulates an array of tiny alveoli with in vivo-like dimensions. This membrane outperforms PDMS in many ways: it does not absorb rhodamine-B, is biodegradable, is created by a simple method, and can easily be tuned to modify its thickness, composition and stiffness. The air-blood barrier is reconstituted using primary lung alveolar epithelial cells from patients and primary lung endothelial cells. Typical alveolar epithelial cell markers are expressed, while the barrier properties are preserved for up to 3 weeks.
  • Modulating the Barrier Function of Human Alveolar Epithelial (hAELVi) Cell Monolayers as a Model of Inflammation.

    Metz, Julia Katharina; Wiegand, Birgit; Schnur, Sabrina; Knoth, Katharina; Schneider-Daum, Nicole; Groß, Henrik; Croston, Glenn; Reinheimer, Torsten Michael; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Hittinger, Marius; et al. (SAGE Publications, 2021-01-29)
    The incidence of inflammatory lung diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains an important problem, particularly in the present time with the Covid-19 pandemic. However, an adequate in vitro test system to monitor the barrier function of the alveolar epithelium during inflammation and for assessing anti-inflammatory drugs is urgently needed. Therefore, we treated human Alveolar Epithelial Lentivirus-immortalised cells (hAELVi cells) with the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α (25 ng/ml) and IFN-γ (30 ng/ml), in the presence or absence of hydrocortisone (HC). While TNF-α and IFN-γ are known to reduce epithelial barrier properties, HC could be expected to protect the barrier function and result in an anti-inflammatory effect. We investigated the impact of anti-inflammatory/inflammatory treatment on transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and the apparent permeability coefficient (P app ) of the low permeability marker sodium fluorescein (NaFlu). After incubating hAELVi cells for 48 hours with a combination of TNF-α and IFN-γ, there was a significant decrease in TEER and a significant increase in the P app . The presence of HC maintained the TEER values and barrier properties, so that no significant P app change was observed. By using hAELVi cells to study anti-inflammatory drugs in vitro, the need for animal experiments could be reduced and pulmonary drug development accelerated.
  • Redispersible Spray-Dried Powder Containing Nanoencapsulated Curcumin: the Drying Process Does Not Affect Neuroprotection In vitro.

    de Andrade, Diego Fontana; Vukosavljevic, Branko; Hoppe, Juliana Bender; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Windbergs, Maike; Külkamp-Guerreiro, Irene; Salbego, Christianne Gazzana; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany.;TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH,Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (Springer, 2019-08-12)
    A redispersible spray-dried formulation containing curcumin-loaded, lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC-C) was developed for oral administration. The neuroprotective activity of curcumin after the spray-drying process was evaluated in vitro. The spray-dried powder (SD-LNC-C) was produced using a drying adjuvant composed of a blend of maltodextrin and L-leucine (90:10 w/w). Acceptable process yield (~ 70%) and drug content (6.5 ± 0.2 mg g-1) were obtained. SD-LNC-C was formed by smooth, spherical-shaped particles, and confocal Raman analysis indicated the distribution of the LNC-C on the surface of the leucine/maltodextrin agglomerates. The surface of the agglomerates was formed by a combination of LNC-C and adjuvants, and laser diffraction showed that SD-LNC-C had adequate aqueous redispersion, with no loss of controlled drug release behaviour of LNC-C. The in vitro curcumin activity against the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proinflammatory response in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures was evaluated. Both formulations (LNC-C and SD-LNC-C) reduced TNF-α to similar levels. Therefore, neuroprotection of curcumin in vitro may be improved by nanoencapsulation followed by spray-drying, with no loss of this superior performance. Hence, the redispersible spray-dried powder proposed here represents a suitable approach for the development of innovative nanomedicines containing curcumin for the prevention/treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
  • Analysis and optimization of two film-coated tablet production processes by computer simulation: A case study

    Hering, Stefanie; Schäuble, Nico; Buck, Thomas M.; Loretz, Brigitta; Rillmann, Thomas; Stieneker, Frank; Lehr, Claus Michael; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (MDPI, 2021-01-01)
    Increasing regulatory demands are forcing the pharmaceutical industry to invest its available resources carefully. This is especially challenging for small- and middle-sized companies. Computer simulation software like FlexSim allows one to explore variations in production processes without the need to interrupt the running process. Here, we applied a discrete-event simulation to two approved film-coated tablet production processes. The simulations were performed with FlexSim (FlexSim Deutschland—Ingenieurbüro für Simulationsdienstleistung Ralf Gruber, Kirchlengern, Germany). Process visualization was done using Cmap Tools (Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, Pensacola, FL, USA), and statistical analysis used MiniTab® (Minitab GmbH, Munich, Germany). The most critical elements identified during model building were the model logic, operating schedule, and processing times. These factors were graphically and statistically verified. To optimize the utilization of employees, three different shift systems were simulated, thereby revealing the advantages of two-shift and one-and-a-half-shift systems compared to a one-shift system. Without the need to interrupt any currently running production processes, we found that changing the shift system could save 50–53% of the campaign duration and 9–14% of the labor costs. In summary, we demonstrated that FlexSim, which is mainly used in logistics, can also be advantageously implemented for modeling and optimizing pharmaceutical production processes.
  • A hydrogel-based assay for the fast prediction of antibiotic accumulation in Gram-negative bacteria.

    Richter, Robert; Kamal, Mohamed A M; García-Rivera, Mariel A; Kaspar, Jerome; Junk, Maximilian; Elgaher, Walid A M; Srikakulam, Sanjay Kumar; Gress, Alexander; Beckmann, Anja; Grißmer, Alexander; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-11-02)
    The pipeline of antibiotics has been for decades on an alarmingly low level. Considering the steadily emerging antibiotic resistance, novel tools are needed for early and easy identification of effective anti-infective compounds. In Gram-negative bacteria, the uptake of anti-infectives is especially limited. We here present a surprisingly simple in vitro model of the Gram-negative bacterial envelope, based on 20% (w/v) potato starch gel, printed on polycarbonate 96-well filter membranes. Rapid permeability measurements across this polysaccharide hydrogel allowed to correctly predict either high or low accumulation for all 16 tested anti-infectives in living Escherichia coli. Freeze-fracture TEM supports that the macromolecular network structure of the starch hydrogel may represent a useful surrogate of the Gram-negative bacterial envelope. A random forest analysis of in vitro data revealed molecular mass, minimum projection area, and rigidity as the most critical physicochemical parameters for hydrogel permeability, in agreement with reported structural features needed for uptake into Gram-negative bacteria. Correlating our dataset of 27 antibiotics from different structural classes to reported MIC values of nine clinically relevant pathogens allowed to distinguish active from nonactive compounds based on their low in vitro permeability specifically for Gram-negatives. The model may help to identify poorly permeable antimicrobial candidates before testing them on living bacteria.
  • Decoding (patho-)physiology of the lung by advanced in vitro models for developing novel anti-infectives therapies.

    Montefusco-Pereira, Carlos Victor; Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane de Souza; Seeger, Johanna; Kloft, Charlotte; Michelet, Robin; Lehr, Claus-Michael; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Elsevier, 2020-11-21)
    Advanced lung cell culture models provide physiologically-relevant and complex data for mathematical models to exploit host-pathogen responses during anti-infective drug testing.
  • Synthesis and Biopharmaceutical Characterization of Amphiphilic Squalenyl Derivative Based Versatile Drug Delivery Platform.

    Ho, Duy-Khiet; Christmann, Rebekka; Murgia, Xabier; de Rossi, Chiara; Frisch, Sarah; Koch, Marcus; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Loretz, Brigitta; Desmaele, Didier; Couvreur, Patrick; et al. (Frontiers, 2020-10-19)
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has no animal reservoir, infecting only humans. To investigate species barrier determinants limiting infection of rodents, murine liver complementary DNA library screening was performed, identifying transmembrane proteins Cd302 and Cr1l as potent restrictors of HCV propagation. Combined ectopic expression in human hepatoma cells impeded HCV uptake and cooperatively mediated transcriptional dysregulation of a noncanonical program of immunity genes. Murine hepatocyte expression of both factors was constitutive and not interferon inducible, while differences in liver expression and the ability to restrict HCV were observed between the murine orthologs and their human counterparts. Genetic ablation of endogenous Cd302 expression in human HCV entry factor transgenic mice increased hepatocyte permissiveness for an adapted HCV strain and dysregulated expression of metabolic process and host defense genes. These findings highlight human-mouse differences in liver-intrinsic antiviral immunity and facilitate the development of next-generation murine models for preclinical testing of HCV vaccine candidates.
  • Editorial EJPB - Biobarriers 2018.

    Fuhrmann, Gregor; Loretz, Brigitta; Schneider-Daum, Nicole; Lehr, Claus-Michael; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Elsevier, 2020-11-02)
    [No abstract available]
  • Controlling Supramolecular Structures of Drugs by Light.

    Wiest, Johannes; Kehrein, Josef; Saedtler, Marco; Schilling, Klaus; Cataldi, Eleonora; Sotriffer, Christoph A; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Rasmussen, Tim; Böttcher, Bettina; Cronin-Golomb, Mark; et al. (American Chemical Society (ACS), 2020-10-29)
    Controlling physicochemical properties of light-unresponsive drugs, by light, prima facie, a paradox approach. We expanded light control by ion pairing light-unresponsive salicylate or ibuprofen to photoswitchable azobenzene counterions, thereby reversibly controlling supramolecular structures, hence the drugs' physicochemical and kinetic properties. The resulting ion pairs photoliquefied into room-temperature ionic liquids under ultraviolet light. Aqueous solutions showed trans-cis-dependent supramolecular structures under a light with wormlike aggregates decomposing into small micelles and vice versa. Light control allowed for permeation through membranes of cis-ibuprofen ion pairs within 12 h in contrast to the trans ion pairs requiring 72 h. In conclusion, azobenzene ion-pairing expands light control of physicochemical and kinetic properties to otherwise light-unresponsive drugs.
  • Micro-rheological properties of lung homogenates correlate with infection severity in a mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

    Murgia, Xabier; Kany, Andreas M; Herr, Christian; Ho, Duy-Khiet; de Rossi, Chiara; Bals, Robert; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Hirsch, Anna K H; Hartmann, Rolf W; Empting, Martin; et al. (Nature publishing group (NPG), 2020-10-05)
    Lung infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa pose a serious threat to patients suffering from, among others, cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or bronchiectasis, often leading to life-threatening complications. The establishment of a chronic infection is substantially related to communication between bacteria via quorum-sensing networks. In this study, we aimed to assess the role of quorum-sensing signaling molecules of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) and to investigate the viscoelastic properties of lung tissue homogenates of PA-infected mice in a prolonged acute murine infection model. Therefore, a murine infection model was successfully established via intra-tracheal infection with alginate-supplemented Pseudomonas aeruginosa NH57388A. Rheological properties of lung homogenates were analyzed with multiple particle tracking (MPT) and quorum-sensing molecules were quantified with LC-MS/MS. Statistical analysis of bacterial load and quorum-sensing molecules showed a strong correlation between these biomarkers in infected lungs. This was accompanied by noticeable changes in the consistency of lung homogenates with increasing infection severity. Furthermore, viscoelastic properties of the lung homogenates strongly correlated with bacterial load and quorum sensing molecules. Considering the strong correlation between the viscoelasticity of lung homogenates and the aforementioned biomarkers, the viscoelastic properties of infected lungs might serve as reliable new biomarker for the evaluation of the severity of P. aeruginosa infections in murine models.
  • Towards a Continuous Manufacturing Process of Protein-Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticle Powders.

    Schiller, Stefan; Hanefeld, Andrea; Schneider, Marc; Lehr, Claus-Michael; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Springer, 2020-10-06)
    To develop a scalable and efficient process suitable for the continuous manufacturing of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing ovalbumin as the model protein. PLGA nanoparticles were prepared using a double emulsification spray-drying method. Emulsions were prepared using a focused ultrasound transducer equipped with a flow cell. Either poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) or poloxamer 407 (P-407) was used as a stabilizer. Aliquots of the emulsions were blended with different matrix excipients and spray dried, and the yield and size of the resuspended nanoparticles was determined and compared against solvent displacement. Nanoparticle sizes of spray-dried PLGA/PVA emulsions were independent of the matrix excipient and comparable with sizes from the solvent displacement method. The yield of the resuspended nanoparticles was highest for emulsions containing trehalose and leucine (79%). Spray drying of PLGA/P-407 emulsions led to agglomerated nanoparticles independent of the matrix excipient. PLGA/P-407 nanoparticles pre-formed by solvent displacement could be spray dried with limited agglomeration when PVA was added as an additional stabilizer. A comparably high and economically interesting nanoparticle yield could be achieved with a process suitable for continuous manufacturing. Further studies are needed to understand the robustness of a continuous process at commercial scale.
  • Editorial: Mechanisms of Prokaryotic Predation.

    Whitworth, David E; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Pérez, Juana; Fuhrmann, Gregor; Koval, Susan F; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Frontiers, 2020-09-08)
    No abstract available]
  • Probiomimetics-Novel Lactobacillus-Mimicking Microparticles Show Anti-Inflammatory and Barrier-Protecting Effects in Gastrointestinal Models.

    Kuhn, Thomas; Koch, Marcus; Fuhrmann, Gregor; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Wiley, 2020-09-03)
    There is a lack of efficient therapies to treat increasingly prevalent autoimmune diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease. Membrane vesicles (MVs) isolated from probiotic bacteria have shown tremendous potential for treating intestinal inflammatory diseases. However, possible dilution effects and rapid elimination in the gastrointestinal tract may impair their application. A cell‐free and anti‐inflammatory therapeutic system—probiomimetics—based on MVs of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum) coupled to the surface of microparticles is developed. The MVs are isolated and characterized for size and protein content. MV morphology is determined using cryoelectron microscopy and is reported for the first time in this study. MVs are nontoxic against macrophage‐like dTHP‐1 and enterocyte‐like Caco‐2 cell lines. Subsequently, the MVs are coupled onto the surface of microparticles according to facile aldehyde‐group functionalization to obtain probiomimetics. A significant reduction in proinflammatory TNF‐α level (by 86%) is observed with probiomimetics but not with native MVs. Moreover, it is demonstrated that probiomimetics have the ability to ameliorate inflammation‐induced loss of intestinal barrier function, indicating their potential for further development into an anti‐inflammatory formulation. These engineered simple probiomimetics that elicit striking anti‐inflammatory effects are a key step toward therapeutic MV translation.
  • Human airway mucus alters susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms to tobramycin, but not colistin.

    Müller, Laura; Murgia, Xabier; Siebenbürger, Lorenz; Börger, Carsten; Schwarzkopf, Konrad; Sewald, Katherina; Häussler, Susanne; Braun, Armin; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Hittinger, Marius; et al.
    Objectives: In the context of cystic fibrosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms often develop in the vicinity of airway mucus, which acts as a protective physical barrier to inhaled matter. However, mucus can also adsorb small drug molecules administered as aerosols, including antibiotics, thereby reducing their bioavailability. The efficacy of antibiotics is typically assessed by determining the MIC using in vitro assays. This widespread technique, however, does not consider either bacterial biofilm formation or the influence of mucus, both of which may act as diffusion barriers, potentially limiting antibiotic efficacy. Methods: We grew P. aeruginosa biofilms in the presence or absence of human tracheal mucus and tested their susceptibility to tobramycin and colistin. Results: A significant reduction of tobramycin efficacy was observed when P. aeruginosa biofilms were grown in the presence of mucus compared with those grown in the absence of mucus. Diffusion of tobramycin through mucus was reduced; however, this reduction was more pronounced in biofilm/mucus mixtures, suggesting that biofilms in the presence of mucus respond differently to antibiotic treatment. In contrast, the influence of mucus on colistin efficacy was almost negligible and no differences in mucus permeability were observed. Conclusions: These findings underline the important role of mucus in the efficacy of anti-infective drugs.
  • Itaconic Acid Increases the Efficacy of Tobramycin against Biofilms.

    Ho, Duy-Khiet; de Rossi, Chiara; Loretz, Brigitta; Murgia, Xabier; Lehr, Claus-Michael; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (MDPI, 2020-07-22)
    The search for novel therapeutics against pulmonary infections, in particular Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) biofilm infections, has been intense to deal with the emergent rise of antimicrobial resistance. Despite the numerous achievements in drug discovery and delivery strategies, only a limited number of therapeutics reach the clinic. To allow a timely preclinical development, a formulation should be highly effective, safe, and most importantly facile to produce. Thus, a simple combination of known actives that enhances the therapeutic efficacy would be a preferential choice compared to advanced drug delivery systems. In this study, we propose a novel combination of an anti-inflammatory agent-itaconic acid (itaconate, IA)-and an approved antibiotic-tobramycin (Tob) or ciprofloxacin (Cipro). The combination of Tob and IA at a molar ratio of 1:5 increased the biofilm eradicating efficacy in the strain PA14 wild type (wt) by ~4-fold compared to Tob alone. In contrast, such effect was not observed for the combination of IA with Cipro. Subsequent studies on the influence of IA on bacterial growth, pyocyanin production, and Tob biofilm penetration indicated that complexation with IA enhanced the transport of Tob through the biofilm. We recommend the simple and effective combination of Tob:IA for further testing in advanced preclinical models of PA biofilm infections.
  • Vibrational spectroscopic imaging and live cell video microscopy for studying differentiation of primary human alveolar epithelial cells.

    Vukosavljevic, Branko; Hittinger, Marius; Hachmeister, Henning; Pilger, Christian; Murgia, Xabier; Gepp, Michael M; Gentile, Luca; Huwer, Hanno; Schneider-Daum, Nicole; Huser, Thomas; et al. (Wiley-VCH, 2019-02-20)
  • Polysaccharide Submicrocarrier for Improved Pulmonary Delivery of Poorly Soluble Anti-infective Ciprofloxacin: Preparation, Characterization, and Influence of Size on Cellular Uptake.

    Ho, Duy-Khiet; Costa, Ana; de Rossi, Chiara; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Loretz, Brigitta; Lehr, Claus-Michael; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (American Chemical Society, 2018-02-21)
    The majority of the currently used and developed anti-infectives are poorly water-soluble molecules. The poor solubility might lead to limited bioavailability and pharmacological action of the drug. Novel pharmaceutical materials have thus been designed to solve those problems and improve drug delivery. In this study, we propose a facile method to produce submicrocarriers (sMCs) by electrostatic gelation of anionic ß-cyclodextrin (aß-CD) and chitosan. The average hydrodynamic size ranged from 400 to 900 nm by carefully adjusting polymer concentrations and N/C ratio. The distinct host-guest reaction of cyclodextrin derivative is considered as a good approach to enhance solubility, and prevent drug recrystallization, and thus was used to develop sMC to improve the controlled release profile of a poorly soluble and clinically relevant anti-infective ciprofloxacin. The optimal molar ratio of ciprofloxacin to aß-CD was found to be 1:1, which helped maximize encapsulation efficiency (∼90%) and loading capacity (∼9%) of ciprofloxacin loaded sMCs. Furthermore, to recommend the future application of the developed sMCs, the dependence of cell uptake on sMCs size (500, 700, and 900 nm) was investigated in vitro on dTHP-1 by both flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The results demonstrate that, regardless of their size, an only comparatively small fraction of the sMCs were taken up by the macrophage-like cells, while most of the carriers were merely adsorbed to the cell surface after 2 h incubation. After continuing the incubation to reach 24 h, the majority of the sMCs were found intracellularly. However, the sMCs had been designed to release sufficient amount of drug within 24 h, and the subsequent phagocytosis of the carrier may be considered as an efficient pathway for its safe degradation and elimination. In summary, the developed sMC is a suitable system with promising perspectives recommended for pulmonary extracellular infection therapeutics.
  • Biogenic and Biomimetic Carriers as Versatile Transporters To Treat Infections.

    Goes, Adriely; Fuhrmann, Gregor; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (American Chemical Society, 2018-03-29)
    Biogenic and biomimetic therapeutics are a relatively new class of systems that are of physiological origin and/or take advantage of natural pathways or aim at mimicking these to improve selective interaction with target tissue. The number of biogenic and bioengineered avenues for drug therapy and diagnostics has multiplied over the past years for many applications, indicating the high expectations associated with this biological route. Nevertheless, the use of "bio"-related approaches for treating or diagnosing infectious diseases is still rare. Given that infectious diseases, in particular bacterial resistances, are seriously on the rise, there is an urgent need to take advantage of biogenic and bioengineered systems to target these challenges. In this manuscript, we first give a definition of the various "bio" terms, including biogenic, biomimetic, bioinspired, and bioengineered and we highlight them using tangible applications in the field of infectious diseases. Our examples cover cell-derived systems, including bioengineered bacteria, virus-like particles, and different cell-mimetics. Moreover, we discuss natural and bioengineered particles such as extracellular vesicles from mammalian and bacterial sources and liposomes. A concluding section outlines the potential for biomaterial-related avenues to overcome challenges associated with difficult-to-treat infections. We critically discuss benefits and risks for these applications and give an outlook on the future of biogenic engineering.
  • Squalenyl Hydrogen Sulfate Nanoparticles for Simultaneous Delivery of Tobramycin and an Alkylquinolone Quorum Sensing Inhibitor Enable the Eradication of P. aeruginosa Biofilm Infections.

    Ho, Duy-Khiet; Murgia, Xabier; de Rossi, Chiara; Christmann, Rebekka; Hüfner de Mello Martins, Antonio G; Koch, Marcus; Andreas, Anastasia; Herrmann, Jennifer; Müller, Rolf; Empting, Martin; et al. (Wiley, 2020-04-03)
    Elimination of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infections is challenging to accomplish with antibiotic therapies, mainly due to resistance mechanisms. Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) interfering with biofilm formation can thus complement antibiotics. For simultaneous and improved delivery of both active agents to the infection sites, self-assembling nanoparticles of a newly synthesized squalenyl hydrogen sulfate (SqNPs) were prepared. These nanocarriers allowed for remarkably high loading capacities of hydrophilic antibiotic tobramycin (Tob) and a novel lipophilic QSI at 30 % and circa 10 %, respectively. The drug-loaded SqNPs showed improved biofilm penetration and enhanced efficacy in relevant biological barriers (mucin/human tracheal mucus, biofilm), leading to complete eradication of PA biofilms at circa 16-fold lower Tob concentration than Tob alone. This study offers a viable therapy optimization and invigorates the research and development of QSIs for clinical use.
  • Liver-derived extracellular vesicles: A cell by cell overview to isolation and characterization practices.

    Zivko, Cristina; Fuhrmann, Gregor; Luciani, Paola; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Elsevier, 2020-02-19)
    BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a diverse group of membrane-bound nanovesicles potentially released by every cell. With the liver's unique ensemble of cells and its fundamental physiological tasks, elucidating the role of EV-mediated hepatic cellular crosstalk and their role in different pathologies has been gaining the attention of many scientists. SCOPE OF REVIEW: The present review shifts the perspective into practice: we aim to critically discuss the methods used to purify and to biochemically analyse EVs from specific liver resident cells, including hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells, cholangiocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, Kupffer cells, liver stem cells. The review offers a reference guide to current approaches. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: Strategies for EV isolation and characterization are as varied as the research groups performing them. We present main advantages and disadvantages for the methods, highlighting common causes for concern, such as FBS handling, reporting of cell viability, EV yield and storage, differences in differential centrifugations, suboptimal method descriptions, and method transferability. We both looked at how adaptable the research between human and rodent cells in vitro is, and also assessed how well either of them translates to ex vivo settings. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: We reviewed methodological practices for the isolation and analysis of liver-derived EVs, making a cell type specific user guide that shows where to start, what has worked so far and to what extent. We critically discussed room for improvement, placing a particular focus on working towards a potential standardization of methods.

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