• A 3D co-culture of three human cell lines to model the inflamed intestinal mucosa for safety testing of nanomaterials.

      Susewind, Julia; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Repnik, Urska; Collnot, Eva-Maria; Schneider-Daum, Nicole; Griffiths, Gareth Wyn; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmaceutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (2016)
      Oral exposure to nanomaterials is a current concern, asking for innovative biological test systems to assess their safety, especially also in conditions of inflammatory disorders. Aim of this study was to develop a 3D intestinal model, consisting of Caco-2 cells and two human immune cell lines, suitable to assess nanomaterial toxicity, in either healthy or diseased conditions. Human macrophages (THP-1) and human dendritic cells (MUTZ-3) were embedded in a collagen scaffold and seeded on the apical side of transwell inserts. Caco-2 cells were seeded on top of this layer, forming a 3D model of the intestinal mucosa. Toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (NM101 TiO2, NM300 Ag, Au) was evaluated in non-inflamed and inflamed co-cultures, and also compared to non-inflamed Caco-2 monocultures. Inflammation was elicited by IL-1β, and interactions with engineered NPs were addressed by different endpoints. The 3D co-culture showed well preserved ultrastructure and significant barrier properties. Ag NPs were found to be more toxic than TiO2 or Au NPs. But once inflamed with IL-1β, the co-cultures released higher amounts of IL-8 compared to Caco-2 monocultures. However, the cytotoxicity of Ag NPs was higher in Caco-2 monocultures than in 3D co-cultures. The naturally higher IL-8 production in the co-cultures was enhanced even further by the Ag NPs. This study shows that it is possible to mimic inflamed conditions in a 3D co-culture model of the intestinal mucosa. The fact that it is based on three easily available human cell lines makes this model valuable to study the safety of nanomaterials in the context of inflammation.
    • Co-culture of human alveolar epithelial (hAELVi) and macrophage (THP-1) cell lines.

      Kletting, Stephanie; Barthold, Sarah; Repnik, Urska; Griffiths, Gareth; Loretz, Brigitta; Schneider-Daum, Nicole; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Lehr, Claus-Michael; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Springer Nature, 2018-01-01)
      The air-blood barrier is mainly composed of alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages. Whereas the epithelium acts as a diffusional barrier, macrophages represent an immunological barrier, in particular for larger molecules and nanoparticles. This paper describes a new co-culture of human cell lines representing both cell types. Acquiring, culturing and maintaining primary alveolar epithelial cells presents significant logistical and technical difficulties. The recently established human alveolar epithelial lentivirus immortalized cell line, hAELVi, when grown on permeable filters, forms monolayers with high functional and morphological resemblance to alveolar type I cells. To model alveolar macrophages, the human cell line THP-1 was seeded on pre-formed hAELVi monolayers. The co-culture was characterized regarding cellular morphology, viability and barrier function. Macrophages were homogenously distributed on the epithelium and could be kept in co-culture for up to 7 days. Transmission electron microscopy showed loose contact between THP-1 and hAELVi cells. When grown at air liquid interface, both cells were covered with extracellular matrix-like structure, which was absent in THP-1 mono-culture. In co-culture with macrophages, hAELVi cells displayed similar, sometimes even higher, transepithelial electrical resistance than in mono-cultures. When exposed to silver and starch nanoparticles, hAELVi mono-cultures were more tolerant to the particles than THP-1 mono-cultures. Viability in the co-culture was similar to that of hAELVi mono-cultures. Transport studies with sodium fluorescein in the presence/absence of EDTA proved that the co-culture acts as functional diffusion barrier. These data demonstrate that hAELVi-/THP-1 co-cultures represent a promising model for safety and permeability studies of inhaled chemicals, drugs and nanoparticles.
    • A Custom-Made Device for Reproducibly Depositing Pre-metered Doses of Nebulized Drugs on Pulmonary Cells .

      Horstmann, Justus C; Thorn, Chelsea R; Carius, Patrick; Graef, Florian; Murgia, Xabier; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Lehr, Claus-Michael; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Frontiers, 2021-04-21)
      The deposition of pre-metered doses (i.e., defined before and not after exposition) at the air-liquid interface of viable pulmonary epithelial cells remains an important but challenging task for developing aerosol medicines. While some devices allow quantification of the deposited dose after or during the experiment, e.g., gravimetrically, there is still no generally accepted way to deposit small pre-metered doses of aerosolized drugs or pharmaceutical formulations, e.g., nanomedicines. Here, we describe a straightforward custom-made device, allowing connection to commercially available nebulizers with standard cell culture plates. Designed to tightly fit into the approximately 12-mm opening of either a 12-well Transwell® insert or a single 24-well plate, a defined dose of an aerosolized liquid can be directly deposited precisely and reproducibly (4.8% deviation) at the air-liquid interface (ALI) of pulmonary cell cultures. The deposited dose can be controlled by the volume of the nebulized solution, which may vary in a range from 20 to 200 μl. The entire nebulization-deposition maneuver is completed after 30 s and is spatially homogenous. After phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) deposition, the viability and barrier properties transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of human bronchial epithelial Calu-3 cells were not negatively affected. Straightforward in manufacture and use, the device enables reproducible deposition of metered doses of aerosolized drugs to study the interactions with pulmonary cell cultures grown at ALI conditions.
    • Human alveolar epithelial cells expressing tight junctions to model the air-blood barrier.

      Kuehn, Anna; Kletting, Stephanie; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Repnik, Urska; Griffiths, Gareth; Fischer, Ulrike; Meese, Eckart; Huwer, Hanno; Wirth, Dagmar; May, Tobias; et al. (2016-03-17)
      This paper describes a new human alveolar epithelial cell line (hAELVi - human Alveolar Epithelial Lentivirus immortalized) with type I-like characteristics and functional tight junctions, suitable to model the air-blood barrier of the peripheral lung. Primary human alveolar epithelial cells were immortalized by a novel regimen, grown as monolayers on permeable filter supports and characterized morphologically, biochemically and biophysically. hAELVi cells maintain the capacity to form tight intercellular junctions, with high trans-epithelial electrical resistance (> 1000 Ω*cm²). The cells could be kept in culture over several days, up to passage 75, under liquid-liquid as well as air-liquid conditions. Ultrastructural analysis and real time PCR revealed type I-like cell properties, such as the presence of caveolae, expression of caveolin-1, and absence of surfactant protein C. Accounting for the barrier properties, inter-digitations sealed with tight junctions and desmosomes were also observed. Low permeability of the hydrophilic marker sodium fluorescein confirmed the suitability of hAELVi cells for in vitro transport studies across the alveolar epithelium. These results suggest that hAELVi cells reflect the essential features of the air-blood barrier, as needed for an alternative to animal testing to study absorption and toxicity of inhaled drugs, chemicals and nanomaterials.
    • Increased survival and proliferation of the epidemic strain Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense CRM0019 in alveolar epithelial cells.

      Ribeiro, Giovanni Monteiro; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Real, Fernando; Teixeira, Daniela; Duarte, Rafael Silva; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Helmholtz-Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS), Universitycampus E8.1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (2017-09-13)
      Outbreaks of infections caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria have been reported worldwide generally associated with medical procedures. Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense CRM0019 was obtained during an epidemic of postsurgical infections and was characterized by increased persistence in vivo. To better understand the successful survival strategies of this microorganism, we evaluated its infectivity and proliferation in macrophages (RAW and BMDM) and alveolar epithelial cells (A549). For that, we assessed the following parameters, for both M. abscessus CRM0019 as well as the reference strain M. abscessus ATCC 19977: internalization, intracellular survival for up 3 days, competence to subvert lysosome fusion and the intracellular survival after cell reinfection.
    • Inhalable Clarithromycin Microparticles for Treatment of Respiratory Infections.

      Dimer, Frantiescoli; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Haupenthal, Jörg; Hartmann, Rolf; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Helmholtz-Institute for Pharmaceutical 8 Research Saarland (HIPS),Saarland 9 University, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (2015-12)
      The aim of this work was to develop clarithromycin microparticles (CLARI-MP) and evaluate their aerodynamic behavior, safety in bronchial cells and anti-bacterial efficacy.
    • Lymphatic endothelial cells are a replicative niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

      Lerner, Thomas R; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Repnik, Urska; Russell, Matthew R G; Borel, Sophie; Diedrich, Collin R; Rohde, M; Wainwright, Helen; Collinson, Lucy M; Wilkinson, Robert J; et al. (2016-03-01)
      In extrapulmonary tuberculosis, the most common site of infection is within the lymphatic system, and there is growing recognition that lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are involved in immune function. Here, we identified LECs, which line the lymphatic vessels, as a niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lymph nodes of patients with tuberculosis. In cultured primary human LECs (hLECs), we determined that M. tuberculosis replicates both in the cytosol and within autophagosomes, but the bacteria failed to replicate when the virulence locus RD1 was deleted. Activation by IFN-γ induced a cell-autonomous response in hLECs via autophagy and NO production that restricted M. tuberculosis growth. Thus, depending on the activation status of LECs, autophagy can both promote and restrict replication. Together, these findings reveal a previously unrecognized role for hLECs and autophagy in tuberculosis pathogenesis and suggest that hLECs are a potential niche for M. tuberculosis that allows establishment of persistent infection in lymph nodes.
    • PLGA nanocapsules improve the delivery of clarithromycin to kill intracellular Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium abscessus.

      Anversa Dimer, Frantiescoli; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Goes, Adriely; Cirnski, Katarina; Herrmann, Jennifer; Schmitt, Viktoria; Pätzold, Linda; Abed, Nadia; de Rossi, Chiara; Bischoff, Markus; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-11-18)
      Drug delivery systems are promising for targeting antibiotics directly to infected tissues. To reach intracellular Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium abscessus, we encapsulated clarithromycin in PLGA nanocapsules, suitable for aerosol delivery by nebulization of an aqueous dispersion. Compared to the same dose of free clarithromycin, nanoencapsulation reduced 1000 times the number of intracellular S. aureus in vitro. In RAW cells, while untreated S. aureus was located in acidic compartments, the treated ones were mostly situated in non-acidic compartments. Clarithromycin-nanocapsules were also effective against M. abscessus (70-80% killing efficacy). The activity of clarithromycin-nanocapsules against S. aureus was also confirmed in vivo, using a murine wound model as well as in zebrafish. The permeability of clarithromycin-nanocapsules across Calu-3 monolayers increased in comparison to the free drug, suggesting an improved delivery to sub-epithelial tissues. Thus, clarithromycin-nanocapsules are a promising strategy to target intracellular S. aureus and M. abscessus.
    • Polysaccharide Submicrocarrier for Improved Pulmonary Delivery of Poorly Soluble Anti-infective Ciprofloxacin: Preparation, Characterization, and Influence of Size on Cellular Uptake.

      Ho, Duy-Khiet; Costa, Ana; de Rossi, Chiara; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Loretz, Brigitta; Lehr, Claus-Michael; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (American Chemical Society, 2018-02-21)
      The majority of the currently used and developed anti-infectives are poorly water-soluble molecules. The poor solubility might lead to limited bioavailability and pharmacological action of the drug. Novel pharmaceutical materials have thus been designed to solve those problems and improve drug delivery. In this study, we propose a facile method to produce submicrocarriers (sMCs) by electrostatic gelation of anionic ß-cyclodextrin (aß-CD) and chitosan. The average hydrodynamic size ranged from 400 to 900 nm by carefully adjusting polymer concentrations and N/C ratio. The distinct host-guest reaction of cyclodextrin derivative is considered as a good approach to enhance solubility, and prevent drug recrystallization, and thus was used to develop sMC to improve the controlled release profile of a poorly soluble and clinically relevant anti-infective ciprofloxacin. The optimal molar ratio of ciprofloxacin to aß-CD was found to be 1:1, which helped maximize encapsulation efficiency (∼90%) and loading capacity (∼9%) of ciprofloxacin loaded sMCs. Furthermore, to recommend the future application of the developed sMCs, the dependence of cell uptake on sMCs size (500, 700, and 900 nm) was investigated in vitro on dTHP-1 by both flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The results demonstrate that, regardless of their size, an only comparatively small fraction of the sMCs were taken up by the macrophage-like cells, while most of the carriers were merely adsorbed to the cell surface after 2 h incubation. After continuing the incubation to reach 24 h, the majority of the sMCs were found intracellularly. However, the sMCs had been designed to release sufficient amount of drug within 24 h, and the subsequent phagocytosis of the carrier may be considered as an efficient pathway for its safe degradation and elimination. In summary, the developed sMC is a suitable system with promising perspectives recommended for pulmonary extracellular infection therapeutics.