• The Translational Machinery of Human CD4 T Cells Is Poised for Activation and Controls the Switch from Quiescence to Metabolic Remodeling.

      Ricciardi, Sara; Manfrini, Nicola; Alfieri, Roberta; Calamita, Piera; Crosti, Maria Cristina; Gallo, Simone; Müller, Rolf; Pagani, Massimiliano; Abrignani, Sergio; Biffo, Stefano; et al. (Elsevier/ Cell Press, 2018-12-04)
      Naive T cells respond to T cell receptor (TCR) activation by leaving quiescence, remodeling metabolism, initiating expansion, and differentiating toward effector T cells. The molecular mechanisms coordinating the naive to effector transition are central to the functioning of the immune system, but remain elusive. Here, we discover that T cells fulfill this transitional process through translational control. Naive cells accumulate untranslated mRNAs encoding for glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis factors and possess a translational machinery poised for immediate protein synthesis. Upon TCR engagement, activation of the translational machinery leads to synthesis of GLUT1 protein to drive glucose entry. Subsequently, translation of ACC1 mRNA completes metabolic reprogramming toward an effector phenotype. Notably, inhibition of the eIF4F complex abrogates lymphocyte metabolic activation and differentiation, suggesting ACC1 to be a key regulatory node. Thus, our results demonstrate that translation is a direct mediator of T cell metabolism and indicate translation factors as targets for novel immunotherapeutic approaches.