• Inactivation of SACE_3446, a TetR family transcriptional regulator, stimulates erythromycin production in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

      Wu, Hang; Wang, Yansheng; Yuan, Li; Mao, Yongrong; Wang, Weiwei; Zhu, Lin; Wu, Panpan; Fu, Chengzhang; Müller, Rolf; Weaver, David T; et al. (2016-03)
      Erythromycin A is a widely used antibiotic produced by Saccharopolyspora erythraea; however, its biosynthetic cluster lacks a regulatory gene, limiting the yield enhancement via regulation engineering of S. erythraea. Herein, six TetR family transcriptional regulators (TFRs) belonging to three genomic context types were individually inactivated in S. erythraea A226, and one of them, SACE_3446, was proved to play a negative role in regulating erythromycin biosynthesis. EMSA and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that SACE_3446 covering intact N-terminal DNA binding domain specifically bound to the promoter regions of erythromycin biosynthetic gene eryAI, the resistant gene ermE and the adjacent gene SACE_3447 (encoding a long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase), and repressed their transcription. Furthermore, we explored the interaction relationships of SACE_3446 and previously identified TFRs (SACE_3986 and SACE_7301) associated with erythromycin production. Given demonstrated relatively independent regulation mode of SACE_3446 and SACE_3986 in erythromycin biosynthesis, we individually and concomitantly inactivated them in an industrial S. erythraea WB. Compared with WB, the WBΔ3446 and WBΔ3446Δ3986 mutants respectively displayed 36% and 65% yield enhancement of erythromycin A, following significantly elevated transcription of eryAI and ermE. When cultured in a 5 L fermentor, erythromycin A of WBΔ3446 and WBΔ3446Δ3986 successively reached 4095 mg/L and 4670 mg/L with 23% and 41% production improvement relative to WB. The strategy reported here will be useful to improve antibiotics production in other industrial actinomycete.
    • Insights into the complex biosynthesis of the leupyrrins in Sorangium cellulosum So ce690.

      Kopp, Maren; Irschik, Herbert; Gemperlein, Katja; Buntin, Kathrin; Meiser, Peter; Weissman, Kira J; Bode, Helge B; Müller, Rolf; Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research, Helmholtz Center for Infection Research and Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Saarland University, PO Box 151150, 66041 Saarbrücken, Germany. (2011-05)
      The anti-fungal leupyrrins are secondary metabolites produced by several strains of the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum. These intriguing compounds incorporate an atypically substituted γ-butyrolactone ring, as well as pyrrole and oxazolinone functionalities, which are located within an unusual asymmetrical macrodiolide. Previous feeding studies revealed that this novel structure arises from the homologation of four distinct structural units, nonribosomally-derived peptide, polyketide, isoprenoid and a dicarboxylic acid, coupled with modification of the various building blocks. Here we have attempted to reconcile the biosynthetic pathway proposed on the basis of the feeding studies with the underlying enzymatic machinery in the S. cellulosum strain So ce690. Gene products can be assigned to many of the suggested steps, but inspection of the gene set provokes the reconsideration of several key transformations. We support our analysis by the reconstitution in vitro of the biosynthesis of the pyrrole carboxylic starter unit along with gene inactivation. In addition, this study reveals that a significant proportion of the genes for leupyrrin biosynthesis are located outside the core cluster, a 'split' organization which is increasingly characteristic of the myxobacteria. Finally, we report the generation of four novel deshydroxy leupyrrin analogues by genetic engineering of the pathway.
    • Integrating Culture-based Antibiotic Resistance Profiles with Whole-genome Sequencing Data for 11,087 Clinical Isolates.

      Galata, Valentina; Laczny, Cédric C; Backes, Christina; Hemmrich-Stanisak, Georg; Schmolke, Susanne; Franke, Andre; Meese, Eckart; Herrmann, Mathias; von Müller, Lutz; Plum, Achim; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-05-14)
      Emergingantibiotic resistanceis a major global health threat. The analysis of nucleic acidsequences linked to susceptibility phenotypes facilitates the study of genetic antibiotic resistancedeterminants to inform molecular diagnostics and drug development. We collected genetic data(11,087 newly-sequenced whole genomes) and culture-based resistance profiles (10,991 out of the11,087 isolates comprehensively tested against 22 antibiotics in total) of clinical isolates including18 main species spanning a time period of 30 years. Species and drug specific resistance patternswere observed including increased resistance rates forAcinetobacter baumanniito carbapenemsand forEscherichia colito fluoroquinolones. Species-levelpan-genomeswere constructed to reflectthe genetic repertoire of the respective species, including conserved essential genes and known resis-tance factors. Integrating phenotypes and genotypes through species-level pan-genomes allowed toinfer gene–drug resistance associations using statistical testing. The isolate collection and the analysis results have been integrated into GEAR-base, a resource available for academic research use free of charge athttps://gear-base.com
    • Interrogation of Streptomyces avermitilis for efficient production of avermectins

      Chen, Jinsong; Liu, Mei; Liu, Xueting; Miao, Jin; Fu, Chengzhang; Gao, Heyong; Müller, Rolf; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Lixin; Helmholtz-Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS),Saarland Universitätscampus E8.1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (2016-03)
    • Investigation of cytochromes P450 in myxobacteria: excavation of cytochromes P450 from the genome of Sorangium cellulosum So ce56.

      Khatri, Yogan; Hannemann, Frank; Perlova, Olena; Müller, Rolf; Bernhardt, Rita (2011-06-06)
      The exploitation of cytochromes P450 for novel biotechnological application and for the investigation of their physiological function is of great scientific interest in this post genomic era, where an extraordinary biodiversity of P450 genes has been derived from all forms of life. The study of P450s in the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum strain So ce56, the producer of novel secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical interest is the research topic, in which we were engaged since the beginning of its genome sequencing project. We herein disclosed the cytochrome P450 complements (CYPomes) of spore-forming myxobacterial species, Stigmatella aurantiaca DW4/3-1, Haliangium ochraceum DSM 14365 and Myxococcus xanthus DK1622, and their potential pharmaceutical significance has been discussed.
    • Investigations to the Antibacterial Mechanism of Action of Kendomycin.

      A Elnakady, Yasser; Chatterjee, Indranil; Bischoff, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Josten, Michaele; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Herrmann, Mathias; Müller, Rolf; Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research and Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany. (2016)
      The emergence of bacteria that are resistant to many currently used drugs emphasizes the need to discover and develop new antibiotics that are effective against such multi-resistant strains. Kendomycin is a novel polyketide that has a unique quinone methide ansa structure and various biological properties. This compound exhibits strong antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Despite the promise of kendomycinin in several therapeutic areas, its mode of action has yet to be identified.
    • Leben und Überleben im Boden

      Volz, Carsten; Krug, Daniel; Müller, Rolf; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Wiley-VCH, 2020-12-07)
      Myxobacteria - survivalists in soil. Myxobacteria like Myxococccus xanthus are soil-living microorganisms featuring a complex lifestyle, including movement by coordinated swarming on surfaces, predatory feeding on other microorganisms, and the formation of multicellular fruiting bodies when unfavorable environmental conditions are encountered. Bioinformatic analysis of the large myxobacterial genomes has enabled fascinating insights into the molecular basis for the biosynthesis of complex secondary metabolite structures by myxobacteria, and has set the stage for the discovery of novel natural products. Moreover, well-characterized myxobacteria like M. xanthus increasingly play a role as “biochemical factories” for the biotechnological production of bioactive molecules using synthetic biology approaches
    • Linoleic and palmitoleic acid block streptokinase-mediated plasminogen activation and reduce severity of invasive group A streptococcal infection

      Rox, Katharina; Jansen, Rolf; Loof, Torsten G.; Gillen, Christine M.; Bernecker, Steffen; Walker, Mark J.; Chhatwal, Gursharan Singh; Müller, Rolf; Helmholtz-Institut für pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland,Universitätscampus E8.1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (2017-09-18)
      In contrast to mild infections of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) invasive infections of GAS still pose a serious health hazard: GAS disseminates from sterile sites into the blood stream or deep tissues and causes sepsis or necrotizing fasciitis. In this case antibiotics do not provide an effective cure as the bacteria are capable to hide from them very quickly. Therefore, new remedies are urgently needed. Starting from a myxobacterial natural products screening campaign, we identified two fatty acids isolated from myxobacteria, linoleic and palmitoleic acid, specifically blocking streptokinase-mediated activation of plasminogen and thereby preventing streptococci from hijacking the host’s plasminogen/plasmin system. This activity is not inherited by other fatty acids such as oleic acid and is not attributable to the killing of streptococci. Moreover, both fatty acids are superior in their inhibitory properties compared to two clinically used drugs (tranexamic or ε-amino caproic acid) as they show 500–1000 fold lower IC50 values. Using a humanized plasminogen mouse model mimicking the clinical situation of a local GAS infection that becomes systemic, we demonstrate that these fatty acids ameliorate invasive GAS infection significantly. Consequently, linoleic and palmitoleic acid are possible new options to combat GAS invasive diseases.
    • Mast cells as protectors of health.

      Dudeck, Anne; Köberle, Martin; Goldmann, Oliver; Meyer, Nicole; Dudeck, Jan; Lemmens, Stefanie; Rohde, M; Roldán, Nestor González; Dietze-Schwonberg, Kirsten; Orinska, Zane; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-11-20)
      Mast cells (MC), well known for their effector functions in Th2 skewed allergic and also autoimmune inflammation, become increasingly acknowledged for their role in protection of health. It is now clear that they are also key modulators of immune responses at interface organs like skin or gut. MC can prime tissues for adequate inflammatory responses and cooperate with dendritic cells in T cell activation. They also regulate harmful immune responses in trauma and help to successfully orchestrate pregnancy. This review focusses on the beneficial effects of mast cells on tissue homeostasis and elimination of toxins or venoms. MC can enhance pathogen clearance in many bacterial, viral, and parasite infections, e.g. by TLR2 triggered degranulation, secretion of antimicrobial cathelicidins, recruiting neutrophils or by providing extracellular DNA traps. The role of MC in tumors is more ambiguous, however, encouraging new findings show they can change the tumor microenvironment towards anti-tumor immunity when adequately triggered. Uterine tissue remodeling by α-chymase (MCP-5) is crucial for successful embryo implantation. MCP-4 and the tryptase MCP-6 emerge to be protective in CNS trauma by reducing inflammatory damage and excessive scar formation, thereby protecting axon growth. Last but not least, we see proteases like carboxypeptidase A released by FcεRI activated MC detoxify an increasing number of venoms and endogenous toxins. A better understanding of the plasticity of MC will help to improve these advantageous effects, and hint on ways to cut down detrimental MC actions.
    • Metabolic and Biosynthetic Diversity in Marine Myxobacteria.

      Gemperlein, Katja; Zaburannyi, Nestor; Garcia, Ronald; La Clair, James J; Müller, Rolf; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (2018-09-05)
      Prior to 2005, the vast majority of characterized myxobacteria were obtained from terrestrial habitats. Since then, several species of halotolerant and even obligate marine myxobacteria have been described. Chemical analyses of extracts from these organisms have confirmed their ability to produce secondary metabolites with unique chemical scaffolds. Indeed, new genera of marine-derived myxobacteria, particularly Enhygromyxa, have been shown to produce novel chemical scaffolds that differ from those observed in soil myxobacteria. Further studies have shown that marine sponges and terrestrial myxobacteria are capable of producing similar or even identical secondary metabolites, suggesting that myxobacterial symbionts may have been the true producers. Recent in silico analysis of the genome sequences available from six marine myxobacteria disclosed a remarkably versatile biosynthetic potential. With access to ever-advancing tools for small molecule and genetic evaluation, these studies suggest a bright future for expeditions into this yet untapped resource for secondary metabolites
    • Metabolic Profiling to Determine Bactericidal or Bacteriostatic Effects of New Natural Products using Isothermal Microcalorimetry.

      Cirnski, Katarina; Coetzee, Janetta; Herrmann, Jennifer; Müller, Rolf; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (MyJove Corporation, 2020-10-29)
      Due to the global threat of rising antimicrobial resistance, novel antibiotics are urgently needed. We investigate natural products from Myxobacteria as an innovative source of such new compounds. One bottleneck in the process is typically the elucidation of their mode-of-action. We recently established isothermal microcalorimetry as part of a routine profiling pipeline. This technology allows for investigating the effect of antibiotic exposure on the total bacterial metabolic response, including processes that are decoupled from biomass formation. Importantly, bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects are easily distinguishable without any user intervention during the measurements. However, isothermal microcalorimetry is a rather new approach and applying this method to different bacterial species usually requires pre-evaluation of suitable measurement conditions. There are some reference thermograms available of certain bacteria, greatly facilitating interpretation of results. As the pool of reference data is steadily growing, we expect the methodology to have increasing impact in the future and expect it to allow for in-depth fingerprint analyses enabling the differentiation of antibiotic classes.
    • Minimum Information about a Biosynthetic Gene cluster.

      Medema, Marnix H; Kottmann, Renzo; Yilmaz, Pelin; Cummings, Matthew; Biggins, John B; Blin, Kai; de Bruijn, Irene; Chooi, Yit Heng; Claesen, Jan; Coates, R Cameron; et al. (2015-08-18)
    • Mining the cinnabaramide biosynthetic pathway to generate novel proteasome inhibitors.

      Rachid, Shwan; Huo, Liujie; Herrmann, Jennifer; Stadler, Marc; Köpcke, Bärbel; Bitzer, Jens; Müller, Rolf (2011-04-11)
      The cinnabaramides and salinosporamides are mixed PKS/NRPS natural products isolated from a terrestrial streptomycete and a marine actinomycete, respectively. They interfere with the proteasome and thus potentially inhibit the growth of cancer cells. The compounds exhibit a γ-lactam-β-lactone bicyclic ring structure attached to a cyclohexenyl unit and a PKS side chain. As a first step towards improving anticancer activity and permitting genetic approaches to novel analogues, we have cloned and characterized the cinnabaramide biosynthetic genes from Streptomyces sp. JS360. In addition to the expected PKS and NRPS genes, the cluster encodes functionalities for the assembly of the hexyl side chain precursor. The corresponding enzymes exhibit relaxed substrate specificities towards a number of synthesized precursors, enabling production of novel chlorinated cinnabaramides. These were isolated and analyzed for activity, revealing that derivatives bearing a chlorine atom in the PKS side chain show higher inhibitory potentials towards the proteasome's proteolytic subunits (especially the trypsin and chymotrypsin units) and higher cytotoxicities towards human tumor cell lines than the parent cinnabaramide A. Although their activities towards the proteasome were weaker than that of salinosporamide A, the cinnabaramides were found to inhibit the growth of various fungi with greater potency.
    • Modulation of actin dynamics as potential macrophage subtype-targeting anti-tumour strategy.

      Pergola, Carlo; Schubert, Katrin; Pace, Simona; Ziereisen, Jana; Nikels, Felix; Scherer, Olga; Hüttel, Stephan; Zahler, Stefan; Vollmar, Angelika M; Weinigel, Christina; et al. (2017-01-30)
      Tumour-associated macrophages mainly comprise immunosuppressive M2 phenotypes that promote tumour progression besides anti-tumoural M1 subsets. Selective depletion or reprogramming of M2 may represent an innovative anti-cancer strategy. The actin cytoskeleton is central for cellular homeostasis and is targeted for anti-cancer chemotherapy. Here, we show that targeting G-actin nucleation using chondramide A (ChA) predominantly depletes human M2 while promoting the tumour-suppressive M1 phenotype. ChA reduced the viability of M2, with minor effects on M1, but increased tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α release from M1. Interestingly, ChA caused rapid disruption of dynamic F-actin filaments and polymerization of G-actin, followed by reduction of cell size, binucleation and cell division, without cellular collapse. In M1, but not in M2, ChA caused marked activation of SAPK/JNK and NFκB, with slight or no effects on Akt, STAT-1/-3, ERK-1/2, and p38 MAPK, seemingly accounting for the better survival of M1 and TNFα secretion. In a microfluidically-supported human tumour biochip model, circulating ChA-treated M1 markedly reduced tumour cell viability through enhanced release of TNFα. Together, ChA may cause an anti-tumoural microenvironment by depletion of M2 and activation of M1, suggesting induction of G-actin nucleation as potential strategy to target tumour-associated macrophages in addition to neoplastic cells.
    • A "Motif-Oriented" Total Synthesis of Nannocystin Ax. Preparation and Biological Assessment of Analogues.

      Meng, Zhanchao; Souillart, Laetitia; Monks, Brendan; Huwyler, Nikolas; Herrmann, Jennifer; Müller, Rolf; Fürstner, Alois; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut füt Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (2018-07-06)
      The highly cytotoxic cyclodepsipeptides of the nannocystin family are known to bind to the eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α). Analysis of the docking pose, as proposed by a previous in silico study, suggested that the trisubstituted alkene moiety and the neighboring methyl ether form a domain that might be closely correlated with biological activity. This hypothesis sponsored a synthetic campaign which was designed to be "motif-oriented": specifically, a sequence of ring closing alkyne metathesis (RCAM) followed by hydroxy-directed trans-hydrostannation of the resulting cycloalkyne was conceived, which allowed this potentially anchoring substructure to be systematically addressed at a late stage. This inherently flexible approach opened access to nannocystin Ax (1) itself as well as to 10 non-natural analogues. While the biological data confirmed the remarkable potency of this class of compounds and showed that the domain in question is indeed an innate part of the pharmacophore, the specific structure/activity relationships can only partly be reconciled with the original in silico docking study; therefore, we conclude that this model needs to be carefully revisited.
    • The mRNA-binding Protein TTP/ZFP36 in Hepatocarcinogenesis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

      Kröhler, Tarek; Kessler, Sonja M; Hosseini, Kevan; List, Markus; Barghash, Ahmad; Patial, Sonika; Laggai, Stephan; Gemperlein, Katja; Haybaeck, Johannes; Müller, Rolf; et al. (MDPI, 2019-11-08)
      Hepatic lipid deposition and inflammation represent risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mRNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP, gene name ZFP36) has been suggested as a tumor suppressor in several malignancies, but it increases insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of TTP in hepatocarcinogenesis and HCC progression. Employing liver-specific TTP-knockout (lsTtp-KO) mice in the diethylnitrosamine (DEN) hepatocarcinogenesis model, we observed a significantly reduced tumor burden compared to wild-type animals. Upon short-term DEN treatment, modelling early inflammatory processes in hepatocarcinogenesis, lsTtp-KO mice exhibited a reduced monocyte/macrophage ratio as compared to wild-type mice. While short-term DEN strongly induced an abundance of saturated and poly-unsaturated hepatic fatty acids, lsTtp-KO mice did not show these changes. These findings suggested anti-carcinogenic actions of TTP deletion due to effects on inflammation and metabolism. Interestingly, though, investigating effects of TTP on different hallmarks of cancer suggested tumor-suppressing actions: TTP inhibited proliferation, attenuated migration, and slightly increased chemosensitivity. In line with a tumor-suppressing activity, we observed a reduced expression of several oncogenes in TTP-overexpressing cells. Accordingly, ZFP36 expression was downregulated in tumor tissues in three large human data sets. Taken together, this study suggests that hepatocytic TTP promotes hepatocarcinogenesis, while it shows tumor-suppressive actions during hepatic tumor progression.
    • Mutations improving production and secretion of extracellular lipase by Burkholderia glumae PG1.

      Knapp, Andreas; Voget, Sonja; Gao, Rong; Zaburannyi, Nestor; Krysciak, Dagmar; Breuer, Michael; Hauer, Bernhard; Streit, Wolfgang R; Müller, Rolf; Daniel, Rolf; et al. (2015-10-17)
      Burkholderia glumae is a Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacterium known as the causative agent of rice panicle blight. Strain B. glumae PG1 is used for the production of a biotechnologically relevant lipase, which is secreted into the culture supernatant via a type II secretion pathway. We have comparatively analyzed the genome sequences of B. glumae PG1 wild type and a lipase overproducing strain obtained by classical strain mutagenesis. Among a total number of 72 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in the genome of the production strain, two were localized in front of the lipAB operon and were analyzed in detail. Both mutations contribute to a 100-fold overproduction of extracellular lipase in B. glumae PG1 by affecting transcription of the lipAB operon and efficiency of lipase secretion. We analyzed each of the two SNPs separately and observed a stronger influence of the promoter mutation than of the signal peptide modification but also a cumulative effect of both mutations. Furthermore, fusion of the mutated LipA signal peptide resulted in a 2-fold increase in secretion of the heterologous reporter alkaline phosphatase from Escherichia coli.
    • Myxobacteria-Derived Outer Membrane Vesicles: Potential Applicability Against Intracellular Infections.

      Goes, Adriely; Lapuhs, Philipp; Kuhn, Thomas; Schulz, Eilien; Richter, Robert; Panter, Fabian; Dahlem, Charlotte; Koch, Marcus; Garcia, Ronald; Kiemer, Alexandra K; et al. (MDPI, 2020-01-12)
      In 2019, it was estimated that 2.5 million people die from lower tract respiratory infections annually. One of the main causes of these infections is Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium that can invade and survive within mammalian cells. S. aureus intracellular infections are difficult to treat because several classes of antibiotics are unable to permeate through the cell wall and reach the pathogen. This condition increases the need for new therapeutic avenues, able to deliver antibiotics efficiently. In this work, we obtained outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from the myxobacteria Cystobacter velatus strain Cbv34 and Cystobacter ferrugineus strain Cbfe23, that are naturally antimicrobial, to target intracellular infections, and investigated how they can affect the viability of epithelial and macrophage cell lines. We evaluated by cytometric bead array whether they induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in blood immune cells. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry, we also investigated their interaction and uptake into mammalian cells. Finally, we studied the effect of OMVs on planktonic and intracellular S. aureus. We found that while Cbv34 OMVs were not cytotoxic to cells at any concentration tested, Cbfe23 OMVs affected the viability of macrophages, leading to a 50% decrease at a concentration of 125,000 OMVs/cell. We observed only little to moderate stimulation of release of TNF-alpha, IL-8, IL-6 and IL-1beta by both OMVs. Cbfe23 OMVs have better interaction with the cells than Cbv34 OMVs, being taken up faster by them, but both seem to remain mostly on the cell surface after 24 h of incubation. This, however, did not impair their bacteriostatic activity against intracellular S. aureus. In this study, we provide an important basis for implementing OMVs in the treatment of intracellular infections.
    • Myxobacterial secondary metabolites: bioactivities and modes-of-action.

      Weissman, Kira J; Müller, Rolf; Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany. (2010-09-18)
    • Myxobakterielle Naturstofffabriken

      Krug, Daniel; Garcia, Ronald; Müller, Rolf; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Springer Nature, 2020-02-01)
      Myxococcus xanthus is a prime example of soil-living myxobacteria featuring a complex lifestyle, including coordinated movement through swarming, predatory feeding on other microorganisms, and the formation of multicellular fruiting bodies. Due to its biosynthetic capabilities for secondary metabolite production and its applicability as biotechno-logical chassis organism for heterologous expression, Myxococcus stands out as a biochemical factory for bioactive molecules with future applications, not only in human therap