• Actinobacteria Isolated from an Underground Lake and Moonmilk Speleothem from the Biggest Conglomeratic Karstic Cave in Siberia as Sources of Novel Biologically Active Compounds.

      Axenov-Gibanov, Denis V; Voytsekhovskaya, Irina V; Tokovenko, Bogdan T; Protasov, Eugeniy S; Gamaiunov, Stanislav V; Rebets, Yuriy V; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Timofeyev, Maxim A; Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS), Saarbrucken, Germany, 3 Universität des Saarlandes–Pharmazeutische Biotechnologie, Saarbrucken, Germany. (2016)
      Actinobacteria isolated from unstudied ecosystems are one of the most interesting and promising sources of novel biologically active compounds. Cave ecosystems are unusual and rarely studied. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of ten new actinobacteria strains isolated from an ancient underground lake and moonmilk speleothem from the biggest conglomeratic karstic cave in Siberia with a focus on the biological activity of the obtained strains and the metabolite dereplication of one active strain. Streptomyces genera isolates from moonmilk speleothem demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal activities. Some of the strains were able to inhibit the growth of pathogenic Candida albicans.
    • Baikalomycins A-C, New Aquayamycin-Type Angucyclines Isolated from Lake Baikal Derived sp. IB201691-2A.

      Voitsekhovskaia, Irina; Paulus, Constanze; Dahlem, Charlotte; Rebets, Yuriy; Nadmid, Suvd; Zapp, Josef; Axenov-Gribanov, Denis; Rückert, Christian; Timofeyev, Maxim; Kalinowski, Jörn; et al. (MDPI, 2020-05-07)
      Natural products produced by bacteria found in unusual and poorly studied ecosystems, such as Lake Baikal, represent a promising source of new valuable drug leads. Here we report the isolation of a new Streptomyces sp. strain IB201691-2A from the Lake Baikal endemic mollusk Benedictia baicalensis. In the course of an activity guided screening three new angucyclines, named baikalomycins A-C, were isolated and characterized, highlighting the potential of poorly investigated ecological niches. Besides that, the strain was found to accumulate large quantities of rabelomycin and 5-hydroxy-rabelomycin, known shunt products in angucyclines biosynthesis. Baikalomycins A-C demonstrated varying degrees of anticancer activity. Rabelomycin and 5-hydroxy-rabelomycin further demonstrated antiproliferative activities. The structure elucidation showed that baikalomycin A is a modified aquayamycin with β-d-amicetose and two additional hydroxyl groups at unusual positions (6a and 12a) of aglycone. Baikalomycins B and C have alternating second sugars attached, α-l-amicetose and α-l-aculose, respectively. The gene cluster for baikalomycins biosynthesis was identified by genome mining, cloned using a transformation-associated recombination technique and successfully expressed in S. albus J1074. It contains a typical set of genes responsible for an angucycline core assembly, all necessary genes for the deoxy sugars biosynthesis, and three genes coding for the glycosyltransferase enzymes. Heterologous expression and deletion experiments allowed to assign the function of glycosyltransferases involved in the decoration of baikalomycins aglycone.
    • Benzanthric Acid, a Novel Metabolite From Del14 Expressing the Nybomycin Gene Cluster.

      Rodríguez Estévez, Marta; Gummerlich, Nils; Myronovskyi, Maksym; Zapp, Josef; Luzhetskyy, Andriy; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Frontiers, 2019-01-01)
      Streptomycetes constitute a diverse bacterial group able to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites with potential applications in the pharmacy industry. However, the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of these compounds are very frequently inactive or expressed at very low levels under standard laboratory cultivation conditions. Therefore, the activation or upregulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis genes is a crucial step for the discovery of new bioactive natural products. We have recently reported the discovery of the biosynthetic genes for the antibiotic nybomycin (nyb genes) in Streptomyces albus subsp. chlorinus. The nyb genes were expressed in the heterologous host Streptomyces albus Del14, which produces not only nybomycin, but also a novel compound. In this study, we describe the isolation, purification, and structure elucidation of the new substance named benzanthric acid.
    • Bonsecamin: A New Cyclic Pentapeptide Discovered through Heterologous Expression of a Cryptic Gene Cluster.

      Lasch, Constanze; Stierhof, Marc; Estévez, Marta Rodríguez; Myronovskyi, Maksym; Zapp, Josef; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (MDPI, 2021-07-31)
      The intriguing structural complexity of molecules produced by natural organisms is uncontested. Natural scaffolds serve as an important basis for the development of molecules with broad applications, e.g., therapeutics or agrochemicals. Research in recent decades has demonstrated that by means of classic metabolite extraction from microbes only a small portion of natural products can be accessed. The use of genome mining and heterologous expression approaches represents a promising way to discover new natural compounds. In this paper we report the discovery of a novel cyclic pentapeptide called bonsecamin through the heterologous expression of a cryptic NRPS gene cluster from Streptomyces albus ssp. chlorinus NRRL B-24108 in Streptomyces albus Del14. The new compound was successfully isolated and structurally characterized using NMR. The minimal set of genes required for bonsecamin production was determined through bioinformatic analysis and gene deletion experiments. A biosynthetic route leading to the production of bonsecamin is proposed in this paper.
    • The bottromycin epimerase BotH defines a group of atypical α/β-hydrolase-fold enzymes.

      Sikandar, Asfandyar; Franz, Laura; Adam, Sebastian; Santos-Aberturas, Javier; Horbal, Liliya; Luzhetskyy, Andriy; Truman, Andrew W; Kalinina, Olga V; Koehnke, Jesko; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Springer Nature, 2020-06-29)
      d-amino acids endow peptides with diverse, desirable properties, but the post-translational and site-specific epimerization of l-amino acids into their d-counterparts is rare and chemically challenging. Bottromycins are ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides that have overcome this challenge and feature a d-aspartate (d-Asp), which was proposed to arise spontaneously during biosynthesis. We have identified the highly unusual α/β-hydrolase (ABH) fold enzyme BotH as a peptide epimerase responsible for the post-translational epimerization of l-Asp to d-Asp during bottromycin biosynthesis. The biochemical characterization of BotH combined with the structures of BotH and the BotH–substrate complex allowed us to propose a mechanism for this reaction. Bioinformatic analyses of BotH homologs show that similar ABH enzymes are found in diverse biosynthetic gene clusters. This places BotH as the founding member of a group of atypical ABH enzymes that may be able to epimerize non-Asp stereocenters across different families of secondary metabolites.
    • Characterization of Sigma Factor Genes in streptomyces lividans TK24 Using a Genomic Library-Based Approach for Multiple Gene Deletions.

      Rebets, Yuriy; Tsolis, Konstantinos C; Guðmundsdóttir, Elísabet Eik; Koepff, Joachim; Wawiernia, Beata; Busche, Tobias; Bleidt, Arne; Horbal, Liliya; Myronovskyi, Maksym; Ahmed, Yousra; et al. (Frontiers, 2018-01-01)
      Alternative sigma factors control numerous aspects of bacterial life, including adaptation to physiological stresses, morphological development, persistence states and virulence. This is especially true for the physiologically complex actinobacteria. Here we report the development of a robust gene deletions system for Streptomyces lividans TK24 based on a BAC library combined with the λ-Red recombination technique. The developed system was validated by systematically deleting the most highly expressed genes encoding alternative sigma factors and several other regulatory genes within the chromosome of S. lividans TK24. To demonstrate the possibility of large scale genomic manipulations, the major part of the undecylprodigiosin gene cluster was deleted as well. The resulting mutant strains were characterized in terms of morphology, growth parameters, secondary metabolites production and response to thiol-oxidation and cell-wall stresses. Deletion of SLIV_12645 gene encoding S. coelicolor SigR1 ortholog has the most prominent phenotypic effect, resulted in overproduction of actinorhodin and coelichelin P1 and increased sensitivity to diamide. The secreted proteome analysis of SLIV_12645 mutant revealed SigR1 influence on trafficking of proteins involved in cell wall biogenesis and refactoring. The reported here gene deletion system will further facilitate work on S. lividans strain improvement as a host for either secondary metabolites or protein production and will contribute to basic research in streptomycetes physiology, morphological development, secondary metabolism. On the other hand, the systematic deletion of sigma factors encoding genes demonstrates the complexity and conservation of regulatory processes conducted by sigma factors in streptomycetes
    • Chromosomal position effect influences the heterologous expression of genes and biosynthetic gene clusters in Streptomyces albus J1074.

      Bilyk, Bohdan; Horbal, Liliya; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Helmholz-Institut für pharmazeutische Forschung , Josef-Schneider-Straße2,97080 Würzburg, Germany. (2017-01-04)
      Efforts to construct the Streptomyces host strain with enhanced yields of heterologous product have focussed mostly on engineering of primary metabolism and/or the deletion of endogenous biosynthetic gene clusters. However, other factors, such as chromosome compactization, have been shown to have a significant influence on gene expression levels in bacteria and fungi. The expression of genes and biosynthetic gene clusters may vary significantly depending on their location within the chromosome. Little is known about the position effect in actinomycetes, which are important producers of various industrially relevant bioactive molecules.
    • Cloning and Heterologous Expression of the Grecocycline Biosynthetic Gene Cluster.

      Bilyk, Oksana; Sekurova, Olga N; Zotchev, Sergey B; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Helmholtz Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (2016)
      Transformation-associated recombination (TAR) in yeast is a rapid and inexpensive method for cloning and assembly of large DNA fragments, which relies on natural homologous recombination. Two vectors, based on p15a and F-factor replicons that can be maintained in yeast, E. coli and streptomycetes have been constructed. These vectors have been successfully employed for assembly of the grecocycline biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. Acta 1362. Fragments of the cluster were obtained by PCR and transformed together with the "capture" vector into the yeast cells, yielding a construct carrying the entire gene cluster. The obtained construct was heterologously expressed in S. albus J1074, yielding several grecocycline congeners. Grecocyclines have unique structural moieties such as a dissacharide side chain, an additional amino sugar at the C-5 position and a thiol group. Enzymes from this pathway may be used for the derivatization of known active angucyclines in order to improve their desired biological properties.
    • Complete Draft Genome Sequence of the Actinobacterium Nocardiopsis sinuspersici UTMC102 (DSM 45277(T)), Which Produces Serine Protease.

      Tokovenko, Bogdan; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn; Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Wink, Joachim; Rosenkränzer, Birgit; Myronovskyi, Maksym; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Helmholtz Institut für pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (2017-05-18)
      The genome sequence of alkalohalophilic actinobacterium Nocardiopsis sinuspersici UTMC102 is provided. N. sinuspersici UTMC102 produces a highly active serine alkaline protease, and contains at least 11 gene clusters encoding the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. The N. sinuspersici UTMC102 genome was assembled into a single chromosomal scaffold.
    • Complete genome sequence of producer of the glycopeptide antibiotic Aculeximycin Kutzneria albida DSM 43870T, a representative of minor genus of Pseudonocardiaceae

      Rebets, Yuriy; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Lushchyk, Igor; Rückert, Christian; Zaburannyi, Nestor; Bechthold, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N (2014-10-10)
      Abstract Background Kutzneria is a representative of a rarely observed genus of the family Pseudonocardiaceae. Kutzneria species were initially placed in the Streptosporangiaceae genus and later reconsidered to be an independent genus of the Pseudonocardiaceae. Kutzneria albida is one of the eight known members of the genus. This strain is a unique producer of the glycosylated polyole macrolide aculeximycin which is active against both bacteria and fungi. Kutzneria albida genome sequencing and analysis allow a deeper understanding of evolution of this genus of Pseudonocardiaceae, provide new insight in the phylogeny of the genus, as well as decipher the hidden secondary metabolic potential of these rare actinobacteria. Results To explore the biosynthetic potential of Kutzneria albida to its full extent, the complete genome was sequenced. With a size of 9,874,926 bp, coding for 8,822 genes, it stands alongside other Pseudonocardiaceae with large circular genomes. Genome analysis revealed 46 gene clusters potentially encoding secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways. Two large genomic islands were identified, containing regions most enriched with secondary metabolism gene clusters. Large parts of this secondary metabolism “clustome” are dedicated to siderophores production. Conclusions Kutzneria albida is the first species of the genus Kutzneria with a completely sequenced genome. Genome sequencing allowed identifying the gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of aculeximycin, one of the largest known oligosaccharide-macrolide antibiotics. Moreover, the genome revealed 45 additional putative secondary metabolite gene clusters, suggesting a huge biosynthetic potential, which makes Kutzneria albida a very rich source of natural products. Comparison of the Kutzneria albida genome to genomes of other actinobacteria clearly shows its close relations with Pseudonocardiaceae in line with the taxonomic position of the genus.
    • Complete genome sequence of producer of the glycopeptide antibiotic Aculeximycin Kutzneria albida DSM 43870T, a representative of minor genus of Pseudonocardiaceae.

      Rebets, Yuriy; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Lushchyk, Igor; Rückert, Christian; Zaburannyi, Nestor; Bechthold, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS);Saarland University, Building A4.1, 66123 Saarbruecken, Germany. (2014)
      Kutzneria is a representative of a rarely observed genus of the family Pseudonocardiaceae. Kutzneria species were initially placed in the Streptosporangiaceae genus and later reconsidered to be an independent genus of the Pseudonocardiaceae. Kutzneria albida is one of the eight known members of the genus. This strain is a unique producer of the glycosylated polyole macrolide aculeximycin which is active against both bacteria and fungi. Kutzneria albida genome sequencing and analysis allow a deeper understanding of evolution of this genus of Pseudonocardiaceae, provide new insight in the phylogeny of the genus, as well as decipher the hidden secondary metabolic potential of these rare actinobacteria.
    • Cyclofaulknamycin with the Rare Amino Acid D-capreomycidine Isolated from a Well-Characterized Strain.

      Horbal, Liliya; Stierhof, Marc; Palusczak, Anja; Eckert, Nikolas; Zapp, Josef; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (MDPI, 2021-07-28)
      Targeted genome mining is an efficient method of biosynthetic gene cluster prioritization within constantly growing genome databases. Using two capreomycidine biosynthesis genes, alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent arginine beta-hydroxylase and pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase, we identified two types of clusters: one type containing both genes involved in the biosynthesis of the abovementioned moiety, and other clusters including only arginine hydroxylase. Detailed analysis of one of the clusters, the flk cluster from Streptomyces albus, led to the identification of a cyclic peptide that contains a rare D-capreomycidine moiety for the first time. The absence of the pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase gene in the flk cluster is compensated by the XNR_1347 gene in the S. albus genome, whose product is responsible for biosynthesis of the abovementioned nonproteinogenic amino acid. Herein, we report the structure of cyclofaulknamycin and the characteristics of its biosynthetic gene cluster, biosynthesis and bioactivity profile.
    • Development of a Biosensor Concept to Detect the Production of Cluster-Specific Secondary Metabolites.

      Sun, Yi-Qian; Busche, Tobias; Rückert, Christian; Paulus, Constanze; Rebets, Yuriy; Novakova, Renata; Kalinowski, Jörn; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Kormanec, Jan; Sekurova, Olga N; et al. (ACS Publications, 2017-06-16)
      Genome mining of actinomycete bacteria aims at the discovery of novel bioactive secondary metabolites that can be developed into drugs. A new repressor-based biosensor to detect activated secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters in Streptomyces was developed. Biosynthetic gene clusters for undecylprodigiosin and coelimycin in the genome of Streptomyces lividans TK24, which encoded TetR-like repressors and appeared to be almost “silent” based on the RNA-seq data, were chosen for the proof-of-principle studies. The bpsA reporter gene for indigoidine synthetase was placed under control of the promotor/operator regions presumed to be controlled by the cluster-associated TetR-like repressors. While the biosensor for undecylprodigiosin turned out to be nonfunctional, the coelimycin biosensor was shown to perform as expected, turning on biosynthesis of indigoidine in response to the concomitant production of coelimycin. The developed reporter system concept can be applied to those cryptic gene clusters that encode metabolite-sensing repressors to speed up discovery of novel bioactive compounds in Streptomyces.
    • Discovery and Heterologous Production of New Cyclic Depsibosamycins.

      Stierhof, Marc; Myronovskyi, Maksym; Zapp, Josef; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (MDPI, 2021-06-28)
      Streptomyces are producers of valuable secondary metabolites with unique scaffolds that perform a plethora of biological functions. Nonribosomal peptides are of special interest due to their variety and complexity. They are synthesized by nonribosomal peptide synthetases, large biosynthetic machineries that are encoded in the genome of many Streptomyces species. The identification of new peptides and the corresponding biosynthetic gene clusters is of major interest since knowledge can be used to facilitate combinatorial biosynthesis and chemical semisynthesis of natural products. The recently discovered bosamycins are linear octapeptides with an interesting 5-OMe tyrosine moiety and various modifications at the N-terminus. In this study, the new cyclic depsibosamycins B, C, and D from Streptomyces aurantiacus LU19075 were discovered. In comparison to the linear bosamycins B, C, and D, which were also produced by the strain, the cyclic depsibosamycins showed a side-chain-to-tail lactonization of serine and glycine, leading to a ring of four amino acids. In silico identification and heterologous expression of the depsibosamycin (dbm) gene cluster indicated that the cyclic peptides, rather than the linear derivatives, are the main products of the cluster.
    • The diversity and antibacterial activity of culturable actinobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Deschampsia antarctica (Galindez Island, Maritime Antarctic)

      Tistechok, Stepan; Skvortsova, Maryna; Mytsyk, Yuliia; Fedorenko, Victor; Parnikoza, Ivan; Luzhetskyy, Andriy; Gromyko, Oleksandr; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Springer, 2021-09-01)
      Antarctic actinobacteria, which can be isolated from both soils and marine sediments, demonstrate a wide range of antimicrobial activities as well as significant biosynthetic potential as the producers of biologically active compounds. However, the actinobacterial diversity of the Antarctic region has not yet been sufficiently studied. The present study sought to examine the diversity and antibacterial activity of culturable actinobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Deschampsia antarctica (É. Desv.), which was collected from Galindez Island, Maritime Antarctic. Among the actinobacteria isolated using a 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis process, five genera, namely Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Umezawaea, Kribbella and Micrococcus, were identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the isolation and initial characterisation of members of the genus Umezawaea from the Antarctic. The isolated actinobacteria were assayed to determine their activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and yeast. Among the isolated strains, only 30.2% were able to inhibit the growth of at least one of the tested pathogens. The polymerase chain reaction-based screening of the biosynthetic genes revealed the presence of type I polyketide synthases (65.1%), type II polyketide synthases (25.6%) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (9.3%) in the actinobacteria strains. The examination of the sensitivity/resistance to antibiotics profile of the actinobacteria strains revealed their high sensitivity in relation to the tested antibiotics. Taken together, the results showed that Antarctic actinobacteria demonstrate potential as the producers of natural bioactive compounds, which means that they represent a valuable prospect for further studies.
    • Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain IB2014011-1, Isolated from Trichoptera sp. Larvae of Lake Baikal.

      Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V; Tokovenko, Bogdan T; Rebets, Yuriy V; Voytsekhovskaya, Irina V; Shatilina, Zhanna M; Protasov, Eugenii S; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Timofeyev, Maxim A; Helmholtz Institut für pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (2017-04-27)
      Unique ecosystems with specific environmental conditions have been proven to be a promising source for isolation of new actinobacterial strains. Ancient Lake Baikal is one of the greatest examples of an ecosystem with high species biodiversity and endemicity caused by long-lasting isolated evolution and stable environmental conditions. Herein we report the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain IB2014011-1, which was isolated from insect Trichoptera sp. larvae collected at the bottom of Lake Baikal.
    • Dual control system - A novel scaffolding architecture of an inducible regulatory device for the precise regulation of gene expression.

      Horbal, L; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Helmholtz Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (2016-09)
      Here, we present a novel scaffolding architecture of an inducible regulatory device. This dual control system is completely silent in the off stage and is coupled to the regulation of gene expression at both the transcriptional and translational levels. This system also functions as an AND gate. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the cumate-riboswitch dual control system for the control of pamamycin production in Streptomyces albus. Placing the cre recombinase gene under the control of this system permitted the construction of synthetic devices with non-volatile memory that sense the signal and respond by altering DNA at the chromosomal level, thereby producing changes that are heritable. In addition, we present a library of synthetic inducible promoters based on the previously described cumate switch. With only one inducer and different promoters, we demonstrate that simultaneous modulation of the expression of several genes to different levels in various operons is possible. Because all modules of the AND gates are functional in bacteria other than Streptomyces, we anticipate that these regulatory devices can be used to control gene expression in other Actinobacteria. The features described in this study make these systems promising tools for metabolic engineering and biotechnology in Actinobacteria.
    • Dudomycins: New Secondary Metabolites Produced After Heterologous Expression of an Nrps Cluster from ssp. Nrrl B-24108.

      Lasch, Constanze; Stierhof, Marc; Estévez, Marta Rodríguez; Myronovskyi, Maksym; Zapp, Josef; Luzhetskyy, Andriy; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (MDPI, 2020-11-16)
      Since the 1950s, natural products of bacterial origin were systematically developed to be used as drugs with a wide range of medical applications. The available treatment options for many diseases are still not satisfying, wherefore, the discovery of new structures has not lost any of its importance. Beyond the great variety of already isolated and characterized metabolites, Streptomycetes still harbor uninvestigated gene clusters whose products can be accessed using heterologous expression in host organisms. This works presents the discovery of a set of structurally novel secondary metabolites, dudomycins A to D, through the expression of a cryptic NRPS cluster from Streptomyces albus ssp. Chlorinus NRRL B-24108 in the heterologous host strain Streptomyces albus Del14. A minimal set of genes, required for the production of dudomycins, was defined through gene inactivation experiments. This paper also proposes a model for dudomycin biosynthesis.
    • Endophytic Streptomyces in the traditional medicinal plant Arnica montana L.: secondary metabolites and biological activity.

      Wardecki, Tina; Brötz, Elke; De Ford, Christian; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Rebets, Yuriy; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Merfort, Irmgard; Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland,Saarbrücken, Saarland 66123, Germany. (2015-08)
      Arnica montana L. is a medical plant of the Asteraceae family and grows preferably on nutrient poor soils in mountainous environments. Such surroundings are known to make plants dependent on symbiosis with other organisms. Up to now only arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were found to act as endophytic symbiosis partners for A. montana. Here we identified five Streptomyces strains, microorganisms also known to occur as endophytes in plants and to produce a huge variety of active secondary metabolites, as inhabitants of A. montana. The secondary metabolite spectrum of these strains does not contain sesquiterpene lactones, but consists of the glutarimide antibiotics cycloheximide and actiphenol as well as the diketopiperazines cyclo-prolyl-valyl, cyclo-prolyl-isoleucyl, cyclo-prolyl-leucyl and cyclo-prolyl-phenylalanyl. Notably, genome analysis of one strain was performed and indicated a huge genome size with a high number of natural products gene clusters among which genes for cycloheximide production were detected. Only weak activity against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was revealed, but the extracts showed a marked cytotoxic activity as well as an antifungal activity against Candida parapsilosis and Fusarium verticillioides. Altogether, our results provide evidence that A. montana and its endophytic Streptomyces benefit from each other by completing their protection against competitors and pathogens and by exchanging plant growth promoting signals with nutrients.
    • Engineering Corynebacterium glutamicum with a comprehensive genomic library and phage-based vectors.

      Marques, Filipe; Luzhetskyy, Andriy; Mendes, Marta V; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Elsevier, 2020-08-20)
      The Gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum sustains the industrial production of chiral molecules such as L-amino acids. Through heterologous gene expression, C. glutamicum is becoming a sustainable source of small organic molecules and added-value chemicals. The current methods to implement heterologous genes in C. glutamicum rely on replicative vectors requiring lasting selection or chromosomal integration using homologous recombination. Here, we present a set of dedicated and transversal tools for genome editing and gene delivery into C. glutamicum. We generated a cosmid-based library suitable for efficient double allelic exchange, covering more than 94% of the chromosome with an average 5.1x coverage. We employed the library and an iterative marker excision system to generate the carotenoid-free C. glutamicum BT1-C31-Albino (BCA) host, featuring the attachment sites for actinophages ϕC31 and ϕBT1 for one-step chromosomal integration. As a proof-of-principle, we employed a ϕC31-based integration and a Cre system for the markerless expression of the type III polyketide synthase RppA, and a ϕBT1-based integration system for the expression of the phosphopantetheinylation-dependent non-ribosomal peptide synthetase BpsA in the C. glutamicum BCA host. The developed genomic library and microbial host, and the characterized molecular tools will contribute to the study of the physiology and the rise of C. glutamicum as a leading host for drug discovery.