• Biosynthesis of Polyketides in Streptomyces.

      Risdian, Chandra; Mozef, Tjandrawati; Wink, Joachim; HZI, Helmholtz Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MPDI, 2019-05-06)
      Polyketides are a large group of secondary metabolites that have notable variety in their structure and function. Polyketides exhibit a wide range of bioactivities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antiviral, immune-suppressing, anti-cholesterol, and anti-inflammatory activity. Naturally, they are found in bacteria, fungi, plants, protists, insects, mollusks, and sponges. Streptomyces is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that has a filamentous form like fungi. This genus is best known as one of the polyketides producers. Some examples of polyketides produced by Streptomyces are rapamycin, oleandomycin, actinorhodin, daunorubicin, and caprazamycin. Biosynthesis of polyketides involves a group of enzyme activities called polyketide synthases (PKSs). There are three types of PKSs (type I, type II, and type III) in Streptomyces responsible for producing polyketides. This paper focuses on the biosynthesis of polyketides in Streptomyces with three structurally-different types of PKSs.
    • Diversity and Bioactive Potential of Actinobacteria from Unexplored Regions of Western Ghats, India.

      Siddharth, Saket; Vittal, Ravishankar Rai; Wink, Joachim; Steinert, Michael; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (MDPI, 2020-02-07)
      The search for novel bioactive metabolites continues to be of much importance around the world for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial applications. Actinobacteria constitute one of the extremely interesting groups of microorganisms widely used as important biological contributors for a wide range of novel secondary metabolites. This study focused on the assessment of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of crude extracts of actinobacterial strains. Western Ghats of India represents unique regions of biologically diverse areas called "hot spots". A total of 32 isolates were obtained from soil samples of different forest locations of Bisle Ghat and Virjapet situated in Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. The isolates were identified as species of Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, and Nocardioides by cultural, morphological, and molecular studies. Based on preliminary screening, seven isolates were chosen for metabolites extraction and to determine antimicrobial activity qualitatively (disc diffusion method) and quantitatively (micro dilution method) and scavenging activity against DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS(2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. Crude extracts of all seven isolates exhibited fairly strong antibacterial activity towards MRSA strains (MRSA ATCC 33591, MRSA ATCC NR-46071, and MRSA ATCC 46171) with MIC varying from 15.62 to 125 μg/mL, whereas showed less inhibition potential towards Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella typhi (ATCC 25241) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 11775) with MIC of 125-500 μg/mL. The isolates namely S1A, SS5, SCA35, and SCA 11 inhibited Fusariummoniliforme (MTCC 6576) to a maximum extent with MIC ranging from 62.5 to 250 μg/mL. Crude extract of SCA 11 and SCA 13 exhibited potent scavenging activities against DPPH and ABTS radicals. The results from this study suggest that actinobacterial strains of Western Ghats are an excellent source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds. Further research investigations on purification, recovery, and structural characterization of the active compounds are to be carried out.