• The genome architecture of the Collaborative Cross mouse genetic reference population.

      The Collaborative Cross Consortium reports here on the development of a unique genetic resource population. The Collaborative Cross (CC) is a multiparental recombinant inbred panel derived from eight laboratory mouse inbred strains. Breeding of the CC lines was initiated at multiple international sites using mice from The Jackson Laboratory. Currently, this innovative project is breeding independent CC lines at the University of North Carolina (UNC), at Tel Aviv University (TAU), and at Geniad in Western Australia (GND). These institutions aim to make publicly available the completed CC lines and their genotypes and sequence information. We genotyped, and report here, results from 458 extant lines from UNC, TAU, and GND using a custom genotyping array with 7500 SNPs designed to be maximally informative in the CC and used a novel algorithm to infer inherited haplotypes directly from hybridization intensity patterns. We identified lines with breeding errors and cousin lines generated by splitting incipient lines into two or more cousin lines at early generations of inbreeding. We then characterized the genome architecture of 350 genetically independent CC lines. Results showed that founder haplotypes are inherited at the expected frequency, although we also consistently observed highly significant transmission ratio distortion at specific loci across all three populations. On chromosome 2, there is significant overrepresentation of WSB/EiJ alleles, and on chromosome X, there is a large deficit of CC lines with CAST/EiJ alleles. Linkage disequilibrium decays as expected and we saw no evidence of gametic disequilibrium in the CC population as a whole or in random subsets of the population. Gametic equilibrium in the CC population is in marked contrast to the gametic disequilibrium present in a large panel of classical inbred strains. Finally, we discuss access to the CC population and to the associated raw data describing the genetic structure of individual lines. Integration of rich phenotypic and genomic data over time and across a wide variety of fields will be vital to delivering on one of the key attributes of the CC, a common genetic reference platform for identifying causative variants and genetic networks determining traits in mammals.
    • Genome-wide analysis of the mouse lung transcriptome reveals novel molecular gene interaction networks and cell-specific expression signatures.

      Alberts, Rudi; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W; Schughart, Klaus; Department of Infection Genetics, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Inhoffenstr, Braunschweig, Germany. (2011)
      The lung is critical in surveillance and initial defense against pathogens. In humans, as in mice, individual genetic differences strongly modulate pulmonary responses to infectious agents, severity of lung disease, and potential allergic reactions. In a first step towards understanding genetic predisposition and pulmonary molecular networks that underlie individual differences in disease vulnerability, we performed a global analysis of normative lung gene expression levels in inbred mouse strains and a large family of BXD strains that are widely used for systems genetics. Our goal is to provide a key community resource on the genetics of the normative lung transcriptome that can serve as a foundation for experimental analysis and allow predicting genetic predisposition and response to pathogens, allergens, and xenobiotics.
    • Protection from Severe Influenza Virus Infections in Mice Carrying the Mx1 Influenza Virus Resistance Gene Strongly Depends on Genetic Background.

      Shin, Dai-Lun; Hatesuer, Bastian; Bergmann, Silke; Nedelko, Tatiana; Schughart, Klaus; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2015-10)
      Influenza virus infections represent a serious threat to human health. Both extrinsic and intrinsic factors determine the severity of influenza. The MX dynamin-like GTPase 1 (Mx1) gene has been shown to confer strong resistance to influenza A virus infections in mice. Most laboratory mouse strains, including C57BL/6J, carry nonsense or deletion mutations in Mx1 and thus a nonfunctional allele, whereas wild-derived mouse strains carry a wild-type Mx1 allele. Congenic C57BL/6J (B6-Mx1(r/r)) mice expressing a wild-type allele from the A2G mouse strain are highly resistant to influenza A virus infections, to both mono- and polybasic subtypes. Furthermore, in genetic mapping studies, Mx1 was identified as the major locus of resistance to influenza virus infections. Here, we investigated whether the Mx1 protective function is influenced by the genetic background. For this, we generated a congenic mouse strain carrying the A2G wild-type Mx1 resistance allele on a DBA/2J background (D2-Mx1(r/r)). Most remarkably, congenic D2-Mx1(r/r) mice expressing a functional Mx1 wild-type allele are still highly susceptible to H1N1 virus. However, pretreatment of D2-Mx1(r/r) mice with alpha interferon protected them from lethal infections. Our results showed, for the first time, that the presence of an Mx1 wild-type allele from A2G as such does not fully protect mice from lethal influenza A virus infections. These observations are also highly relevant for susceptibility to influenza virus infections in humans.
    • Segregation of a spontaneous Klrd1 (CD94) mutation in DBA/2 mouse substrains.

      Shin, Dai-Lun; Pandey, Ashutosh K; Ziebarth, Jesse Dylan; Mulligan, Megan K; Williams, Robert W; Geffers, Robert; Hatesuer, Bastian; Schughart, Klaus; Wilk, Esther; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2015-02)
      Current model DBA/2J (D2J) mice lack CD94 expression due to a deletion spanning the last coding exon of the Klrd1 gene that occurred in the mid- to late 1980s. In contrast, DBA/2JRj (D2Rj) mice, crosses derived from DBA/2J before 1984, and C57BL/6J (B6) mice lack the deletion and have normal CD94 expression. For example, BXD lines (BXD1-32) generated in the 1970s by crossing B6 and D2J do not segregate for the exonic deletion and have high expression, whereas BXD lines 33 and greater were generated after 1990 are segregating for the deletion and have highly variable Klrd1 expression. We performed quantitative trait locus analysis of Klrd1 expression by using BXD lines with different generation times and found that the expression difference in Klrd1 in the later BXD set is driven by a strong cis-acting expression quantitative trait locus. Although the Klrd1/CD94 locus is essential for mousepox resistance, the genetic variation among D2 substrains and the later set of BXD strains is not associated with susceptibility to the Influenza A virus PR8 strain. Substrains with nearly identical genetic backgrounds that are segregating functional variants such as the Klrd1 deletion are useful genetic tools to investigate biological function.
    • The wild-derived inbred mouse strain SPRET/Ei is resistant to LPS and defective in IFN-beta production.

      Mahieu, Tina; Park, Jin Mo; Revets, Hilde; Pasche, Bastian; Lengeling, Andreas; Staelens, Jan; Wullaert, Andy; Vanlaere, Ineke; Hochepied, Tino; van Roy, Frans; et al. (2006-02-14)
      Although activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-positive cells is essential for eliminating Gram-negative bacteria, overactivation of these cells by the TLR4 ligand LPS initiates a systemic inflammatory reaction and shock. Here we demonstrate that SPRET/Ei mice, derived from Mus spretus, exhibit a dominant resistance against LPS-induced lethality. This resistance is mediated by bone marrow-derived cells. Macrophages from these mice exhibit normal signaling and gene expression responses that depend on the myeloid differentiation factor 88 adaptor protein, but they are impaired in IFN-beta production. The defect appears to be specific for IFN-beta, although the SPRET/Ei IFN-beta promoter is normal. In vivo IFN-beta induction by LPS or influenza virus is very low in SPRET/Ei mice, but IFN-beta-treatment restores the sensitivity to LPS, and IFN type 1 receptor-deficient mice are also resistant to LPS. Because of the defective induction of IFN-beta, these mice are completely resistant to Listeria monocytogenes and highly sensitive to Leishmania major infection. Stimulation of SPRET/Ei macrophages leads to rapid down-regulation of IFN type 1 receptor mRNA expression, which is reflected in poor induction of IFN-beta-dependent genes. This finding indicates that the resistance of SPRET/Ei mice to LPS is due to disruption of a positive-feedback loop that amplifies IFN-beta production. In contrast to TLR4-deficient mice, SPRET/Ei mice resist both LPS and sepsis induced with Klebsiella pneumoniae.