• The 3D structure of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus LANA C-terminal domain bound to DNA.

      Hellert, Jan; Weidner-Glunde, Magdalena; Krausze, Joern; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Ritter, Christiane; Schulz, Thomas F; Lührs, Thorsten (2015-05-26)
      Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) persists as a latent nuclear episome in dividing host cells. This episome is tethered to host chromatin to ensure proper segregation during mitosis. For duplication of the latent genome, the cellular replication machinery is recruited. Both of these functions rely on the constitutively expressed latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of the virus. Here, we report the crystal structure of the KSHV LANA DNA-binding domain (DBD) in complex with its high-affinity viral target DNA, LANA binding site 1 (LBS1), at 2.9 Å resolution. In contrast to homologous proteins such as Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) of the related γ-herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus, specific DNA recognition by LANA is highly asymmetric. In addition to solving the crystal structure, we found that apart from the two known LANA binding sites, LBS1 and LBS2, LANA also binds to a novel site, denoted LBS3. All three sites are located in a region of the KSHV terminal repeat subunit previously recognized as a minimal replicator. Moreover, we show that the LANA DBD can coat DNA of arbitrary sequence by virtue of a characteristic lysine patch, which is absent in EBNA-1 of the Epstein-Barr virus. Likely, these higher-order assemblies involve the self-association of LANA into supermolecular spirals. One such spiral assembly was solved as a crystal structure of 3.7 Å resolution in the absence of DNA. On the basis of our data, we propose a model for the controlled nucleation of higher-order LANA oligomers that might contribute to the characteristic subnuclear KSHV microdomains ("LANA speckles"), a hallmark of KSHV latency.
    • Genomic structure and expression of Jmjd6 and evolutionary analysis in the context of related JmjC domain containing proteins.

      Hahn, Phillip; Böse, Jens; Edler, Stefanie; Lengeling, Andreas; Research Group Infection Genetics, Department of Experimental Mouse Genetics, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, D-31824 Braunschweig, Germany. Phillip.Hahn@helmholtz-hzi.de (2008)
      BACKGROUND: The jumonji C (JmjC) domain containing gene 6 (Jmjd6, previously known as phosphatidylserine receptor) has misleadingly been annotated to encode a transmembrane receptor for the engulfment of apoptotic cells. Given the importance of JmjC domain containing proteins in controlling a wide range of diverse biological functions, we undertook a comparative genomic analysis to gain further insights in Jmjd6 gene organisation, evolution, and protein function. RESULTS: We describe here a semiautomated computational pipeline to identify and annotate JmjC domain containing proteins. Using a sequence segment N-terminal of the Jmjd6 JmjC domain as query for a reciprocal BLAST search, we identified homologous sequences in 62 species across all major phyla. Retrieved Jmjd6 sequences were used to phylogenetically analyse corresponding loci and their genomic neighbourhood. This analysis let to the identification and characterisation of a bi-directional transcriptional unit compromising the Jmjd6 and 1110005A03Rik genes and to the recognition of a new, before overseen Jmjd6 exon in mammals. Using expression studies, two novel Jmjd6 splice variants were identified and validated in vivo. Analysis of the Jmjd6 neighbouring gene 1110005A03Rik revealed an incident deletion of this gene in two out of three earlier reported Jmjd6 knockout mice, which might affect previously described conflicting phenotypes. To determine potentially important residues for Jmjd6 function a structural model of the Jmjd6 protein was calculated based on sequence conservation. This approach identified a conserved double-stranded beta-helix (DSBH) fold and a HxDxnH facial triad as structural motifs. Moreover, our systematic annotation in nine species identified 313 DSBH fold-containing proteins that split into 25 highly conserved subgroups. CONCLUSION: We give further evidence that Jmjd6 most likely has a function as a nonheme-Fe(II)-2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase as previously suggested. Further, we provide novel insights into the evolution of Jmjd6 and other related members of the superfamily of JmjC domain containing proteins. Finally, we discuss possibilities of the involvement of Jmjd6 and 1110005A03Rik in an antagonistic biochemical pathway.