• Amphibian gut microbiota shifts differentially in community structure but converges on habitat-specific predicted functions.

      Bletz, Molly C; Goedbloed, Daniel J; Sanchez, Eugenia; Reinhardt, Timm; Tebbe, Christoph C; Bhuju, Sabin; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Vences, Miguel; Steinfartz, Sebastian; et al. (2016-12-15)
      Complex microbial communities inhabit vertebrate digestive systems but thorough understanding of the ecological dynamics and functions of host-associated microbiota within natural habitats is limited. We investigate the role of environmental conditions in shaping gut and skin microbiota under natural conditions by performing a field survey and reciprocal transfer experiments with salamander larvae inhabiting two distinct habitats (ponds and streams). We show that gut and skin microbiota are habitat-specific, demonstrating environmental factors mediate community structure. Reciprocal transfer reveals that gut microbiota, but not skin microbiota, responds differentially to environmental change. Stream-to-pond larvae shift their gut microbiota to that of pond-to-pond larvae, whereas pond-to-stream larvae change to a community structure distinct from both habitat controls. Predicted functions, however, match that of larvae from the destination habitats in both cases. Thus, microbial function can be matched without taxonomic coherence and gut microbiota appears to exhibit metagenomic plasticity.
    • The Biofilm Inhibitor Carolacton Enters Gram-Negative Cells: Studies Using a TolC-Deficient Strain of Escherichia coli.

      Donner, Jannik; Reck, Michael; Bunk, Boyke; Jarek, Michael; App, Constantin Benjamin; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Overmann, Jörg; Müller, Rolf; Kirschning, Andreas; Wagner-Döbler, Irene; et al. (2017-11-01)
      The myxobacterial secondary metabolite carolacton inhibits growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae and kills biofilm cells of the caries- and endocarditis-associated pathogen Streptococcus mutans at nanomolar concentrations. Here, we studied the response to carolacton of an Escherichia coli strain that lacked the outer membrane protein TolC. Whole-genome sequencing of the laboratory E. coli strain TolC revealed the integration of an insertion element, IS5, at the tolC locus and a close phylogenetic relationship to the ancient E. coli K-12. We demonstrated via transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and determination of MIC values that carolacton penetrates the phospholipid bilayer of the Gram-negative cell envelope and inhibits growth of E. coli TolC at similar concentrations as for streptococci. This inhibition is completely lost for a C-9 (R) epimer of carolacton, a derivative with an inverted stereocenter at carbon atom 9 [(S) → (R)] as the sole difference from the native molecule, which is also inactive in S. pneumoniae and S. mutans, suggesting a specific interaction of native carolacton with a conserved cellular target present in bacterial phyla as distantly related as Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. The efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) phenylalanine arginine β-naphthylamide (PAβN), which specifically inhibits AcrAB-TolC, renders E. coli susceptible to carolacton. Our data indicate that carolacton has potential for use in antimicrobial chemotherapy against Gram-negative bacteria, as a single drug or in combination with EPIs. Strain E. coli TolC has been deposited at the DSMZ; together with the associated RNA-seq data and MIC values, it can be used as a reference during future screenings for novel bioactive compounds. IMPORTANCE The emergence of pathogens resistant against most or all of the antibiotics currently used in human therapy is a global threat, and therefore the search for antimicrobials with novel targets and modes of action is of utmost importance. The myxobacterial secondary metabolite carolacton had previously been shown to inhibit biofilm formation and growth of streptococci. Here, we investigated if carolacton could act against Gram-negative bacteria, which are difficult targets because of their double-layered cytoplasmic envelope. We found that the model organism Escherichia coli is susceptible to carolacton, similar to the Gram-positive Streptococcus pneumoniae, if its multidrug efflux system AcrAB-TolC is either inactivated genetically, by disruption of the tolC gene, or physiologically by coadministering an efflux pump inhibitor. A carolacton epimer that has a different steric configuration at carbon atom 9 is completely inactive, suggesting that carolacton may interact with the same molecular target in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
    • Characterization of the p53 cistrome--DNA binding cooperativity dissects p53's tumor suppressor functions.

      Schlereth, Katharina; Heyl, Charlotte; Krampitz, Anna-Maria; Mernberger, Marco; Finkernagel, Florian; Scharfe, Maren; Jarek, Michael; Leich, Ellen; Rosenwald, Andreas; Stiewe, Thorsten; et al. (2013-08)
      p53 protects us from cancer by transcriptionally regulating tumor suppressive programs designed to either prevent the development or clonal expansion of malignant cells. How p53 selects target genes in the genome in a context- and tissue-specific manner remains largely obscure. There is growing evidence that the ability of p53 to bind DNA in a cooperative manner prominently influences target gene selection with activation of the apoptosis program being completely dependent on DNA binding cooperativity. Here, we used ChIP-seq to comprehensively profile the cistrome of p53 mutants with reduced or increased cooperativity. The analysis highlighted a particular relevance of cooperativity for extending the p53 cistrome to non-canonical binding sequences characterized by deletions, spacer insertions and base mismatches. Furthermore, it revealed a striking functional separation of the cistrome on the basis of cooperativity; with low cooperativity genes being significantly enriched for cell cycle and high cooperativity genes for apoptotic functions. Importantly, expression of high but not low cooperativity genes was correlated with superior survival in breast cancer patients. Interestingly, in contrast to most p53-activated genes, p53-repressed genes did not commonly contain p53 binding elements. Nevertheless, both the degree of gene activation and repression were cooperativity-dependent, suggesting that p53-mediated gene repression is largely indirect and mediated by cooperativity-dependently transactivated gene products such as CDKN1A, E2F7 and non-coding RNAs. Since both activation of apoptosis genes with non-canonical response elements and repression of pro-survival genes are crucial for p53's apoptotic activity, the cistrome analysis comprehensively explains why p53-induced apoptosis, but not cell cycle arrest, strongly depends on the intermolecular cooperation of p53 molecules as a possible safeguard mechanism protecting from accidental cell killing.
    • Chromatin binding of Gcn5 in Drosophila is largely mediated by CP190.

      Ali, Tamer; Krüger, Marcus; Bhuju, Sabin; Jarek, Michael; Bartkuhn, Marek; Renkawitz, Rainer; Hel,holtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2016-11-29)
      Centrosomal 190 kDa protein (CP190) is a promoter binding factor, mediates long-range interactions in the context of enhancer-promoter contacts and in chromosomal domain formation. All Drosophila insulator proteins bind CP190 suggesting a crucial role in insulator function. CP190 has major effects on chromatin, such as depletion of nucleosomes, high nucleosomal turnover and prevention of heterochromatin expansion. Here, we searched for enzymes, which might be involved in CP190 mediated chromatin changes. Eighty percent of the genomic binding sites of the histone acetyltransferase Gcn5 are colocalizing with CP190 binding. Depletion of CP190 reduces Gcn5 binding to chromatin. Binding dependency was further supported by Gcn5 mediated co-precipitation of CP190. Gcn5 is known to activate transcription by histone acetylation. We used the dCas9 system to target CP190 or Gcn5 to a Polycomb repressed and H3K27me3 marked gene locus. Both, CP190 as well as Gcn5, activate this locus, thus supporting the model that CP190 recruits Gcn5 and thereby activates chromatin.
    • Chromera velia, endosymbioses and the rhodoplex hypothesis--plastid evolution in cryptophytes, alveolates, stramenopiles, and haptophytes (CASH lineages).

      Petersen, Jörn; Ludewig, Ann-Kathrin; Michael, Victoria; Bunk, Boyke; Jarek, Michael; Baurain, Denis; Brinkmann, Henner (2014-03)
      The discovery of Chromera velia, a free-living photosynthetic relative of apicomplexan pathogens, has provided an unexpected opportunity to study the algal ancestry of malaria parasites. In this work, we compared the molecular footprints of a eukaryote-to-eukaryote endosymbiosis in C. velia to their equivalents in peridinin-containing dinoflagellates (PCD) to reevaluate recent claims in favor of a common ancestry of their plastids. To this end, we established the draft genome and a set of full-length cDNA sequences from C. velia via next-generation sequencing. We documented the presence of a single coxI gene in the mitochondrial genome, which thus represents the genetically most reduced aerobic organelle identified so far, but focused our analyses on five "lucky genes" of the Calvin cycle. These were selected because of their known support for a common origin of complex plastids from cryptophytes, alveolates (represented by PCDs), stramenopiles, and haptophytes (CASH) via a single secondary endosymbiosis with a red alga. As expected, our broadly sampled phylogenies of the nuclear-encoded Calvin cycle markers support a rhodophycean origin for the complex plastid of Chromera. However, they also suggest an independent origin of apicomplexan and dinophycean (PCD) plastids via two eukaryote-to-eukaryote endosymbioses. Although at odds with the current view of a common photosynthetic ancestry for alveolates, this conclusion is nonetheless in line with the deviant plastome architecture in dinoflagellates and the morphological paradox of four versus three plastid membranes in the respective lineages. Further support for independent endosymbioses is provided by analysis of five additional markers, four of them involved in the plastid protein import machinery. Finally, we introduce the "rhodoplex hypothesis" as a convenient way to designate evolutionary scenarios where CASH plastids are ultimately the product of a single secondary endosymbiosis with a red alga but were subsequently horizontally spread via higher-order eukaryote-to-eukaryote endosymbioses.
    • Community richness of amphibian skin bacteria correlates with bioclimate at the global scale.

      Kueneman, Jordan G; Bletz, Molly C; McKenzie, Valerie J; Becker, C Guilherme; Joseph, Maxwell B; Abarca, Juan G; Archer, Holly; Arellano, Ana Lisette; Bataille, Arnaud; Becker, Matthew; et al. (Dpringer-Nature, 2019-03-01)
      Animal-associated microbiomes are integral to host health, yet key biotic and abiotic factors that shape host-associated microbial communities at the global scale remain poorly understood. We investigated global patterns in amphibian skin bacterial communities, incorporating samples from 2,349 individuals representing 205 amphibian species across a broad biogeographic range. We analysed how biotic and abiotic factors correlate with skin microbial communities using multiple statistical approaches. Global amphibian skin bacterial richness was consistently correlated with temperature-associated factors. We found more diverse skin microbiomes in environments with colder winters and less stable thermal conditions compared with environments with warm winters and less annual temperature variation. We used bioinformatically predicted bacterial growth rates, dormancy genes and antibiotic synthesis genes, as well as inferred bacterial thermal growth optima to propose mechanistic hypotheses that may explain the observed patterns. We conclude that temporal and spatial characteristics of the host's macro-environment mediate microbial diversity.
    • Complete Genome Sequence and Manual Reannotation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. Strain DSM 44135.

      Goethe, Ralph; Basler, Tina; Meissner, Thorsten; Goethe, Elke; Spröer, Cathrin; Swiderski, Jolantha; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Weiss, Siegfried; Jarek, Michael; Bunk, Boyke; et al. (ASM, 2020-08-13)
      Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis reference strain DSM 44135, amended with a manual genome reannotation. The strain was originally described as M. paratuberculosis strain 6783. It was isolated from feces from a dairy cow in northern Germany.
    • Complete Genome Sequence of JII-1961, a Bovine Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Field Isolate from Germany.

      Möbius, Petra; Nordsiek, Gabriele; Hölzer, Martin; Jarek, Michael; Marz, Manja; Köhler, Heike; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017-08-24)
      Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease in ruminants and was also detected in nonruminant species, including human beings, and in milk products. We announce here the 4.829-Mb complete genome sequence of the cattle-type strain JII-1961 from Germany, which is very similar to cattle-type strains recovered from different continents.
    • Complete Genome Sequences of Streptococcus suis Pig-Pathogenic Strains 10, 13-00283-02, and 16085/3b.

      Bunk, Boyke; Jakóbczak, Beata; Florian, Volker; Dittmar, Denise; Mäder, Ulrike; Jarek, Michael; Häußler, Susanne; Baums, Christoph Georg; Völker, Uwe; Michalik, Stephan; et al. (American Society for Microbiology, 2021-01-14)
      Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen of pigs that, as a zoonotic agent, can also cause severe disease in humans, including meningitis, endocarditis, and septicemia. We report complete and annotated genomes of S. suis strains 10, 13-00283-02, and 16085/3b, which represent the highly prevalent serotypes cps2, cps7, and cps9, respectively.
    • Complete Genome Sequences of Three Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 19A with Different Susceptibilities to the Myxobacterial Metabolite Carolacton.

      Donner, Jannik; Bunk, Boyke; Schober, Isabel; Spröer, Cathrin; Bergmann, Simone; Jarek, Michael; Overmann, Jörg; Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017-02-16)
      The full-genome sequences of three drug- and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates of serotype 19A were determined by PacBio single-molecule real-time sequencing, in combination with Illumina MiSeq sequencing. A comparison to the genomes of other pneumococci indicates a high nucleotide sequence identity to strains Hungary19A-6 and TCH8431/19A.
    • Complete Sequence of Probiotic Symbioflor 2 Escherichia coli Strain G3/10 and Draft Sequences of Symbioflor 2 E. coli Strains G1/2, G4/9, G5, G6/7, and G8.

      Zschüttig, Anke; Auerbach, Christian; Meltke, Simone; Eichhorn, Christin; Brandt, Manuela; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Jarek, Michael; Scharfe, Maren; Zimmermann, Kurt; et al. (2015)
      The complete genome of probiotic Escherichia coli strain G3/10 is presented here. In addition, the probiotic E. coli strains G1/2, G4/9, G5, G6/7, and G8 are presented in draft form. These six strains together comprise the probiotic product Symbioflor 2 (DSM 17252).
    • Day and Night: Metabolic Profiles and Evolutionary Relationships of Six Axenic Non-Marine Cyanobacteria.

      Will, Sabine Eva; Henke, Petra; Boedeker, Christian; Huang, Sixing; Brinkmann, Henner; Rohde, M; Jarek, Michael; Friedl, Thomas; Seufert, Steph; Schumacher, Martin; et al. (Oxford Academic, 2019-01-01)
      Cyanobacteria are dominant primary producers of various ecosystems and they colonize marine as well as freshwater and terrestrial habitats. On the basis of their oxygenic photosynthesis they are known to synthesize a high number of secondary metabolites, which makes them promising for biotechnological applications. State-of-the-art sequencing and analytical techniques and the availability of several axenic strains offer new opportunities for the understanding of the hidden metabolic potential of cyanobacteria beyond those of single model organisms. Here, we report comprehensive genomic and metabolic analyses of five non-marine cyanobacteria, that is, Nostoc sp. DSM 107007, Anabaena variabilis DSM 107003, Calothrix desertica DSM 106972, Chroococcidiopsis cubana DSM 107010, Chlorogloeopsis sp. PCC 6912, and the reference strain Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Five strains that are prevalently belonging to the order Nostocales represent the phylogenetic depth of clade B1, a morphologically highly diverse sister lineage of clade B2 that includes strain PCC 6803. Genome sequencing, light and scanning electron microscopy revealed the characteristics and axenicity of the analyzed strains. Phylogenetic comparisons showed the limits of the 16S rRNA gene for the classification of cyanobacteria, but documented the applicability of a multilocus sequence alignment analysis based on 43 conserved protein markers. The analysis of metabolites of the core carbon metabolism showed parts of highly conserved metabolic pathways as well as lineage specific pathways such as the glyoxylate shunt, which was acquired by cyanobacteria at least twice via horizontal gene transfer. Major metabolic changes were observed when we compared alterations between day and night samples. Furthermore, our results showed metabolic potential of cyanobacteria beyond Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as model organism and may encourage the cyanobacterial community to broaden their research to related organisms with higher metabolic activity in the desired pathways.
    • Differential roles for MBD2 and MBD3 at methylated CpG islands, active promoters and binding to exon sequences.

      Günther, Katharina; Rust, Mareike; Leers, Joerg; Boettger, Thomas; Scharfe, Maren; Jarek, Michael; Bartkuhn, Marek; Renkawitz, Rainer; Institute for Genetics, Justus-Liebig-University, D35392 Giessen, Germany. (2013-03-01)
      The heterogeneous collection of nucleosome remodelling and deacetylation (NuRD) complexes can be grouped into the MBD2- or MBD3-containing complexes MBD2-NuRD and MBD3-NuRD. MBD2 is known to bind to methylated CpG sequences in vitro in contrast to MBD3. Although functional differences have been described, a direct comparison of MBD2 and MBD3 in respect to genome-wide binding and function has been lacking. Here, we show that MBD2-NuRD, in contrast to MBD3-NuRD, converts open chromatin with euchromatic histone modifications into tightly compacted chromatin with repressive histone marks. Genome-wide, a strong enrichment for MBD2 at methylated CpG sequences is found, whereas CpGs bound by MBD3 are devoid of methylation. MBD2-bound genes are generally lower expressed as compared with MBD3-bound genes. When depleting cells for MBD2, the MBD2-bound genes increase their activity, whereas MBD2 plus MBD3-bound genes reduce their activity. Most strikingly, MBD3 is enriched at active promoters, whereas MBD2 is bound at methylated promoters and enriched at exon sequences of active genes.
    • Distribution and Evolution of Peroxisomes in Alveolates (Apicomplexa, Dinoflagellates, Ciliates).

      Ludewig-Klingner, Ann-Kathrin; Michael, Victoria; Jarek, Michael; Brinkmann, Henner; Petersen, Jörn; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2018-01-01)
      The peroxisome was the last organelle to be discovered and five decades later it is still the Cinderella of eukaryotic compartments. Peroxisomes have a crucial role in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, the beta-oxidation of fatty acids, and the biosynthesis of etherphospholipids, and they are assumed to be present in virtually all aerobic eukaryotes. Apicomplexan parasites including the malaria and toxoplasmosis agents were described as the first group of mitochondriate protists devoid of peroxisomes. This study was initiated to reassess the distribution and evolution of peroxisomes in the superensemble Alveolata (apicomplexans, dinoflagellates, ciliates). We established transcriptome data from two chromerid algae (Chromera velia, Vitrella brassicaformis), and two dinoflagellates (Prorocentrum minimum, Perkinsus olseni) and identified the complete set of essential peroxins in all four reference species. Our comparative genome analysis provides unequivocal evidence for the presence of peroxisomes in Toxoplasma gondii and related genera. Our working hypothesis of a common peroxisomal origin of all alveolates is supported by phylogenetic analyses of essential markers such as the import receptor Pex5. Vitrella harbors the most comprehensive set of peroxisomal proteins including the catalase and the glyoxylate cycle and it is thus a promising model organism to investigate the functional role of this organelle in Apicomplexa.
    • Divergent co-transcriptomes of different host cells infected with Toxoplasma gondii reveal cell type-specific host-parasite interactions.

      Swierzy, Izabela J; Händel, Ulrike; Kaever, Alexander; Jarek, Michael; Scharfe, Maren; Schlüter, Dirk; Lüder, Carsten G K; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017-08-03)
      The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects various cell types in avian and mammalian hosts including humans. Infection of immunocompetent hosts is mostly asymptomatic or benign, but leads to development of largely dormant bradyzoites that persist predominantly within neurons and muscle cells. Here we have analyzed the impact of the host cell type on the co-transcriptomes of host and parasite using high-throughput RNA sequencing. Murine cortical neurons and astrocytes, skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs) and fibroblasts differed by more than 16,200 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) before and after infection with T. gondii. However, only a few hundred of them were regulated by infection and these largely diverged in neurons, SkMCs, astrocytes and fibroblasts indicating host cell type-specific transcriptional responses after infection. The heterogeneous transcriptomes of host cells before and during infection coincided with ~5,400 DEGs in T. gondii residing in different cell types. Finally, we identified gene clusters in both T. gondii and its host, which correlated with the predominant parasite persistence in neurons or SkMCs as compared to astrocytes or fibroblasts. Thus, heterogeneous expression profiles of different host cell types and the parasites' ability to adapting to them may govern the parasite-host cell interaction during toxoplasmosis.
    • Donor-derived IL-17A and IL-17F deficiency triggers Th1 allo-responses and increases gut leakage during acute GVHD.

      Odak, Ivan; Depkat-Jakob, Alina; Beck, Maleen; Jarek, Michael; Yu, Yan; Seidler, Ursula; David, Sascha; Ganser, Arnold; Förster, Reinhold; Prinz, Immo; et al. (PLOS, 2020-04-06)
      s Metrics Comments Media Coverage Abstract Introduction Material and methods Results Discussion Supporting information Acknowledgments References Reader Comments (0) Media Coverage (0) Figures Abstract IL-17A and IL-17F cytokines are important regulators of acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). However, contrary effects of these cytokines in inflammatory diseases have been reported. To investigate the effects of donor-derived IL-17A and IL-17F on GVHD, we made use of single (Il17a-/- or Il17f-/-) and double deficient (Il17af-/-) allogeneic donor CD4+ T cells. We could demonstrate that transplantation of Il17af-/- CD4+ donor T cells led to aggravated GVHD. However, this phenotype was not observed after transplantation of single, Il17a-/- or Il17f-/-, deficient CD4+ T cells, suggesting redundant effects of IL-17A and IL-17F. Moreover, Il17af-/- cell recipients showed an increase of systemic IFNγ, indicating a heightened pro-inflammatory state, as well as infiltration of IFNγ-secreting CD4+ T cells in the recipients’ intestinal tract. These recipients exhibited significant gut leakage, and markedly macrophage infiltration in the gastrointestinal epithelial layer. Moreover, we saw evidence of impaired recovery of gut epithelial cells in recipients of Il17af-/- CD4+ T cells. In this study, we show that IL-17A/F double deficiency of donor CD4+ T cells leads to accelerated GVHD and therefore highlight the importance of these cytokines. Together, IL-17 cytokines might serve as a brake to an intensified Th1 response, leading to the exacerbated gut damage in acute GVHD.
    • Draft Genome Sequence of the Gammaproteobacterial Strain MOLA455, a Representative of a Ubiquitous Proteorhodopsin-Producing Group in the Ocean.

      Courties, Alicia; Riedel, Thomas; Jarek, Michael; Papadatou, Maria; Intertaglia, Laurent; Lebaron, Philippe; Suzuki, Marcelino T (2014-01-30)
      Strain MOLA455 is a marine gammaproteobacterium isolated from the bay of Banyuls-sur-Mer, France. Here, we present its genome sequence and annotation. Genome analysis revealed the presence of genes associated with a possibly photoheterotrophic lifestyle that uses a proteorhodopsin protein.
    • Draft Genome Sequence of Zoonotic Streptococcus canis Isolate G361.

      Eichhorn, Inga; van der Linden, Mark; Jarek, Michael; Fulde, Marcus; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr.7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017-09-21)
      Here, we report the draft genome sequence of an SCM-positive Streptococcus canis strain, G361, isolated from a vaginal swab of a 40-year-old woman. The draft genome comprises 2,045,931 bp in 62 contigs.
    • Dysbiosis in chronic periodontitis: Key microbial players and interactions with the human host.

      Deng, Zhi-Luo; Szafrański, Szymon P; Jarek, Michael; Bhuju, Sabin; Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7., 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017-06-16)
      Periodontitis is an extremely prevalent disease worldwide and is driven by complex dysbiotic microbiota. Here we analyzed the transcriptional activity of the periodontal pocket microbiota from all domains of life as well as the human host in health and chronic periodontitis. Bacteria showed strong enrichment of 18 KEGG functional modules in chronic periodontitis, including bacterial chemotaxis, flagellar assembly, type III secretion system, type III CRISPR-Cas system, and two component system proteins. Upregulation of these functions was driven by the red-complex pathogens and candidate pathogens, e.g. Filifactor alocis, Prevotella intermedia, Fretibacterium fastidiosum and Selenomonas sputigena. Nine virulence factors were strongly up-regulated, among them the arginine deiminase arcA from Porphyromonas gingivalis and Mycoplasma arginini. Viruses and archaea accounted for about 0.1% and 0.22% of total putative mRNA reads, respectively, and a protozoan, Entamoeba gingivalis, was highly enriched in periodontitis. Fourteen human transcripts were enriched in periodontitis, including a gene for a ferric iron binding protein, indicating competition with the microbiota for iron, and genes associated with cancer, namely nucleolar phosphoprotein B23, ankyrin-repeat domain 30B-like protein and beta-enolase. The data provide evidence on the level of gene expression in vivo for the potentially severe impact of the dysbiotic microbiota on human health.
    • Evolutionary conservation of essential and highly expressed genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

      Dötsch, Andreas; Klawonn, Frank; Jarek, Michael; Scharfe, Maren; Blöcker, Helmut; Häussler, Susanne; Helmholtz Centre for infection research, Inhoffenstr. 7, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2010)
      The constant increase in development and spread of bacterial resistance to antibiotics poses a serious threat to human health. New sequencing technologies are now on the horizon that will yield massive increases in our capacity for DNA sequencing and will revolutionize the drug discovery process. Since essential genes are promising novel antibiotic targets, the prediction of gene essentiality based on genomic information has become a major focus.