• Cross talk between the response regulators PhoB and TctD allows for the integration of diverse environmental signals in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

      Bielecki, Piotr; Jensen, Vanessa; Schulze, Wiebke; Gödeke, Julia; Strehmel, Janine; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Nicolai, Tanja; Bielecka, Agata; Wille, Thorsten; Gerlach, Roman G; et al. (2015-07-27)
      Two-component systems (TCS) serve as stimulus-response coupling mechanisms to allow organisms to adapt to a variety of environmental conditions. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes for more than 100 TCS components. To avoid unwanted cross-talk, signaling cascades are very specific, with one sensor talking to its cognate response regulator (RR). However, cross-regulation may provide means to integrate different environmental stimuli into a harmonized output response. By applying a split luciferase complementation assay, we identified a functional interaction of two RRs of the OmpR/PhoB subfamily, namely PhoB and TctD in P. aeruginosa. Transcriptional profiling, ChIP-seq analysis and a global motif scan uncovered the regulons of the two RRs as well as a quadripartite binding motif in six promoter regions. Phosphate limitation resulted in PhoB-dependent expression of the downstream genes, whereas the presence of TctD counteracted this activation. Thus, the integration of two important environmental signals e.g. phosphate availability and the carbon source are achieved by a titration of the relative amounts of two phosphorylated RRs that inversely regulate a common subset of genes. In conclusion, our results on the PhoB and TctD mediated two-component signal transduction pathways exemplify how P. aeruginosa may exploit cross-regulation to adapt bacterial behavior to complex environments.
    • Deep transcriptome profiling of clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates reveals strain and sequence type-specific adaptation.

      Bruchmann, Sebastian; Muthukumarasamy, Uthayakumar; Pohl, Sarah; Preusse, Matthias; Bielecka, Agata; Nicolai, Tanja; Hamann, Isabell; Hillert, Roger; Kola, Axel; Gastmeier, Petra; et al. (2015-11)
      Health-care-associated infections by multi-drug-resistant bacteria constitute one of the greatest challenges to modern medicine. Bacterial pathogens devise various mechanisms to withstand the activity of a wide range of antimicrobial compounds, among which the acquisition of carbapenemases is one of the most concerning. In Klebsiella pneumoniae, the dissemination of the K. pneumoniae carbapenemase is tightly connected to the global spread of certain clonal lineages. Although antibiotic resistance is a key driver for the global distribution of epidemic high-risk clones, there seem to be other adaptive traits that may explain their success. Here, we exploited the power of deep transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) to shed light on the transcriptomic landscape of 37 clinical K. pneumoniae isolates of diverse phylogenetic origins. We identified a large set of 3346 genes which was expressed in all isolates. While the core-transcriptome profiles varied substantially between groups of different sequence types, they were more homogenous among isolates of the same sequence type. We furthermore linked the detailed information on differentially expressed genes with the clinically relevant phenotypes of biofilm formation and bacterial virulence. This allowed for the identification of a diminished expression of biofilm-specific genes within the low biofilm producing ST258 isolates as a sequence type-specific trait.
    • Elucidation of Sigma Factor-Associated Networks in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Reveals a Modular Architecture with Limited and Function-Specific Crosstalk.

      Schulz, Sebastian; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Bielecka, Agata; Nicolai, Tanja; Franke, Raimo; Dötsch, Andreas; Hornischer, Klaus; Bruchmann, Sebastian; Düvel, Juliane; Häussler, Susanne; et al. (2015-03)
      Sigma factors are essential global regulators of transcription initiation in bacteria which confer promoter recognition specificity to the RNA polymerase core enzyme. They provide effective mechanisms for simultaneously regulating expression of large numbers of genes in response to challenging conditions, and their presence has been linked to bacterial virulence and pathogenicity. In this study, we constructed nine his-tagged sigma factor expressing and/or deletion mutant strains in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To uncover the direct and indirect sigma factor regulons, we performed mRNA profiling, as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to high-throughput sequencing. We furthermore elucidated the de novo binding motif of each sigma factor, and validated the RNA- and ChIP-seq results by global motif searches in the proximity of transcriptional start sites (TSS). Our integrated approach revealed a highly modular network architecture which is composed of insulated functional sigma factor modules. Analysis of the interconnectivity of the various sigma factor networks uncovered a limited, but highly function-specific, crosstalk which orchestrates complex cellular processes. Our data indicate that the modular structure of sigma factor networks enables P. aeruginosa to function adequately in its environment and at the same time is exploited to build up higher-level functions by specific interconnections that are dominated by a participation of RpoN.
    • Identification of the alternative sigma factor SigX regulon and its implications for Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenicity.

      Blanka, Andrea; Schulz, Sebastian; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Franke, Raimo; Bielecka, Agata; Nicolai, Tanja; Casilag, Fiordiligie; Düvel, Juliane; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; Kaever, Volkhard; et al. (2014-01)
      Pseudomonas aeruginosa is distinguished by its broad metabolic diversity and its remarkable capability for adaptation, which relies on a large collection of transcriptional regulators and alternative sigma (σ) factors. The largest group of alternative σ factors is that of the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factors, which control key transduction pathways for maintenance of envelope homeostasis in response to external stress and cell growth. In addition, there are specific roles of alternative σ factors in regulating the expression of virulence and virulence-associated genes. Here, we analyzed a deletion mutant of the ECF σ factor SigX and applied mRNA profiling to define the SigX-dependent regulon in P. aeruginosa in response to low-osmolarity-medium conditions. Furthermore, the combination of transcriptional data with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) led to the identification of the DNA binding motif of SigX. Genome-wide mapping of SigX-binding regions revealed enrichment of downstream genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, type III secretion, swarming and cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) signaling. In accordance, a sigX deletion mutant exhibited altered fatty acid composition of the cell membrane, reduced cytotoxicity, impaired swarming activity, elevated c-di-GMP levels, and increased biofilm formation. In conclusion, a combination of ChIP-seq with transcriptional profiling and bioinformatic approaches to define consensus DNA binding sequences proved to be effective for the elucidation of the regulon of the alternative σ factor SigX, revealing its role in complex virulence-associated phenotypes in P. aeruginosa.