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Therapeutic modulation of RNA-binding protein Rbm38 facilitates re-endothelialization after arterial injury.Aims Delayed re-endothelialization after balloon angioplasty in patients with coronary or peripheral artery disease impairs vascular healing and leads to neointimal proliferation. In the present study, we examined the effect of RNA-binding motif protein 38 (Rbm38) during re-endothelialization in a murine model of experimental vascular injury. Methods and results Left common carotid arteries of C57BL/6 mice were electrically denudated and endothelial regeneration was evaluated. Profiling of RNA-binding proteins revealed dysregulated expression of Rbm38 in the denudated and regenerated areas. We next tested the importance of Rbm38 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECS) and analysed its effects on cellular proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Rbm38 silencing in vitro demonstrated important beneficial functional effects on migratory capacity and proliferation of endothelial cells. In vivo, local silencing of Rbm38 also improved re-endothelialization of denuded carotid arteries. Luciferase reporter assay identified miR-98 and let-7f to regulate Rbm38 and the positive proliferative properties of Rbm38 silencing in vitro and in vivo were mimicked by therapeutic overexpression of these miRNAs. Conclusion The present data identified Rbm38 as an important factor of the regulation of various endothelial cell functions. Local inhibition of Rbm38 as well as overexpression of the upstream regulators miR-98 and let-7f improved endothelial regeneration in vivo and thus may be a novel therapeutic entry point to avoid endothelial damage after balloon angioplasty.