• BCL6--regulated by AhR/ARNT and wild-type MEF2B--drives expression of germinal center markers MYBL1 and LMO2.

      Ding, Jie; Dirks, Wilhelm G; Ehrentraut, Stefan; Geffers, Robert; MacLeod, Roderick A F; Nagel, Stefan; Pommerenke, Claudia; Romani, Julia; Scherr, Michaela; Vaas, Lea A I; et al. (2015-06)
      Genetic heterogeneity is widespread in tumors, but poorly documented in cell lines. According to immunoglobulin hypermutation analysis, the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell line U-2932 comprises two subpopulations faithfully representing original tumor subclones. We set out to identify molecular causes underlying subclone-specific expression affecting 221 genes including surface markers and the germinal center oncogenes BCL6 and MYC. Genomic copy number variations explained 58/221 genes differentially expressed in the two U-2932 clones. Subclone-specific expression of the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the resulting activity of the AhR/ARNT complex underlaid differential regulation of 11 genes including MEF2B. Knock-down and inhibitor experiments confirmed that AhR/ARNT regulates MEF2B, a key transcription factor for BCL6. AhR, MEF2B and BCL6 levels correlated not only in the U-2932 subclones but in the majority of 23 cell lines tested, indicting overexpression of AhR as a novel mechanism behind BCL6 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Enforced modulation of BCL6 affected 48/221 signature genes. Although BCL6 is known as a transcriptional repressor, 28 genes were up-regulated, including LMO2 and MYBL1 which, like BCL6, signify germinal center diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Supporting the notion that BCL6 can induce gene expression, BCL6 and the majority of potential targets were co-regulated in a series of B-cell lines. In conclusion, genomic copy number aberrations, activation of AhR/ARNT, and overexpression of BCL6 are collectively responsible for differential expression of more than 100 genes in subclones of the U-2932 cell line. It is particularly interesting that BCL6 - regulated by AhR/ARNT and wild-type MEF2B - may drive expression of germinal center markers in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
    • The transcriptional regulator LysG (Rv1985c) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis activates lysE (Rv1986) in a lysine-dependent manner.

      Schneefeld, Marie; Busche, Tobias; Geffers, Robert; Kalinowski, Jörn; Bange, Franz-Christoph; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017)
      The Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein encoded by the Rv1986 gene is a target for memory T cells in patients with tuberculosis, and shows strong similarities to a lysine exporter LysE of Corynebacterium glutamicum. During infection, the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis adapts its metabolism to environmental changes. In this study, we found that the expression of Rv1986 is controlled by Rv1985c. Rv1985c is located directly upstream of Rv1986 with an overlapping promoter region between both genes. Semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR using an isogenic mutant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis lacking Rv1985c showed that in the presence of lysine, Rv1985c protein positively upregulated the expression of Rv1986. RNA sequencing revealed the transcription start points for both transcripts and overlapping promoters. An inverted repeat in the center of the intergenic region was identified, and binding of Rv1985c protein to the intergenic region was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Whole transcriptome expression analysis and RNAsequencing showed downregulated transcription of ppsBCD in the Rv1985c-mutant compared to the wild type strain. Taken together, our findings characterize the regulatory network of Rv1985c in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Due to their similarity of an orthologous gene pair in Corynebacterium glutamicum, we suggest to rename Rv1985c to lysG(Mt), and Rv1986 to lysE(Mt).