• -Aryl-3-mercaptosuccinimides as Antivirulence Agents Targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa Elastase and Clostridium Collagenases.

      Konstantinović, Jelena; Yahiaoui, Samir; Alhayek, Alaa; Haupenthal, Jörg; Schönauer, Esther; Andreas, Anastasia; Kany, Andreas M; Müller, Rolf; Koehnke, Jesko; Berger, Fabian K; et al. (ACS, 2020-06-17)
      In light of the global antimicrobial-resistance crisis, there is an urgent need for novel bacterial targets and antibiotics with novel modes of action. It has been shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase (LasB) and Clostridium histolyticum (Hathewaya histolytica) collagenase (ColH) play a significant role in the infection process and thereby represent promising antivirulence targets. Here, we report novel N-aryl-3-mercaptosuccinimide inhibitors that target both LasB and ColH, displaying potent activities in vitro and high selectivity for the bacterial over human metalloproteases. Additionally, the inhibitors demonstrate no signs of cytotoxicity against selected human cell lines and in a zebrafish embryo toxicity model. Furthermore, the most active ColH inhibitor shows a significant reduction of collagen degradation in an ex vivo pig-skin model.
    • The bottromycin epimerase BotH defines a group of atypical α/β-hydrolase-fold enzymes.

      Sikandar, Asfandyar; Franz, Laura; Adam, Sebastian; Santos-Aberturas, Javier; Horbal, Liliya; Luzhetskyy, Andriy; Truman, Andrew W; Kalinina, Olga V; Koehnke, Jesko; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Springer Nature, 2020-06-29)
      d-amino acids endow peptides with diverse, desirable properties, but the post-translational and site-specific epimerization of l-amino acids into their d-counterparts is rare and chemically challenging. Bottromycins are ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides that have overcome this challenge and feature a d-aspartate (d-Asp), which was proposed to arise spontaneously during biosynthesis. We have identified the highly unusual α/β-hydrolase (ABH) fold enzyme BotH as a peptide epimerase responsible for the post-translational epimerization of l-Asp to d-Asp during bottromycin biosynthesis. The biochemical characterization of BotH combined with the structures of BotH and the BotH–substrate complex allowed us to propose a mechanism for this reaction. Bioinformatic analyses of BotH homologs show that similar ABH enzymes are found in diverse biosynthetic gene clusters. This places BotH as the founding member of a group of atypical ABH enzymes that may be able to epimerize non-Asp stereocenters across different families of secondary metabolites.
    • Bottromycins - biosynthesis, synthesis and activity.

      Franz, Laura; Kazmaier, Uli; Truman, Andrew W; Koehnke, Jesko; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Royal Chemistry Society, 2021-02-23)
    • Characterization of the Stereoselective P450 Enzyme BotCYP Enables the Biosynthesis of the Bottromycin Core Scaffold.

      Adam, Sebastian; Franz, Laura; Milhim, Mohammed; Bernhardt, Rita; Kalinina, Olga V; Koehnke, Jesko; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (American Chemical Society, 2020-11-28)
      Bottromycins are ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide natural product antibiotics that are effective against high-priority human pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The total synthesis of bottromycins involves at least 17 steps, with a poor overall yield. Here, we report the characterization of the cytochrome P450 enzyme BotCYP from a bottromycin biosynthetic gene cluster. We determined the structure of a close BotCYP homolog and used our data to conduct the first large-scale survey of P450 enzymes associated with RiPP biosynthetic gene clusters. We demonstrate that BotCYP converts a C-terminal thiazoline to a thiazole via an oxidative decarboxylation reaction and provides stereochemical resolution for the pathway. Our data enable the two-pot in vitro production of the bottromycin core scaffold and may allow the rapid generation of bottromycin analogues for compound development.
    • Enhancing glycan stabilityviasite-selective fluorination: modulating substrate orientation by molecular design

      Axer, Alexander; Jumde, Ravindra P.; Adam, Sebastian; Faust, Andreas; Schäfers, Michael; Fobker, Manfred; Koehnke, Jesko; Hirsch, Anna K.H.; Gilmour, Ryan; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Royal Chemistry Society (RCS), 2021-01-28)
      ingle site OH → F substitution at the termini of maltotetraose leads to significantly improved hydrolytic stability towards α-amylase and α-glucosidase relative to the natural compound. To explore the effect of molecular editing, selectively modified oligosaccharides were preparedviaa convergent α-selective strategy. Incubation experiments in purified α-amylase and α-glucosidase, and in human and murine blood serum, provide insight into the influence of fluorine on the hydrolytic stability of these clinically important scaffolds. Enhancements ofca. 1 order of magnitude result from these subtle single point mutations. Modification at the monosaccharide furthest from the probable enzymatic cleavage termini leads to the greatest improvement in stability. In the case of α-amylase, docking studies revealed that retentive C2-fluorination at the reducing end inverts the orientation in which the substrate is bound. A co-crystal structure of human α-amylase revealed maltose units bound at the active-site. In view of the evolving popularity of C(sp3)-F bioisosteres in medicinal chemistry, and the importance of maltodextrins in bacterial imaging, this discovery begins to reconcile the information-rich nature of carbohydrates with their intrinsic hydrolytic vulnerabilities. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2020.
    • Human IFITM3 restricts chikungunya virus and Mayaro virus infection and is susceptible to virus-mediated counteraction.

      Franz, Sergej; Pott, Fabian; Zillinger, Thomas; Schüler, Christiane; Dapa, Sandra; Fischer, Carlo; Passos, Vânia; Stenzel, Saskia; Chen, Fangfang; Döhner, Katinka; et al. (Life Science Alliance, 2021-06-02)
      Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins restrict membrane fusion and virion internalization of several enveloped viruses. The role of IFITM proteins during alphaviral infection of human cells and viral counteraction strategies are insufficiently understood. Here, we characterized the impact of human IFITMs on the entry and spread of chikungunya virus and Mayaro virus and provide first evidence for a CHIKV-mediated antagonism of IFITMs. IFITM1, 2, and 3 restricted infection at the level of alphavirus glycoprotein-mediated entry, both in the context of direct infection and cell-to-cell transmission. Relocalization of normally endosomal IFITM3 to the plasma membrane resulted in loss of antiviral activity. rs12252-C, a naturally occurring variant of IFITM3 that may associate with severe influenza in humans, restricted CHIKV, MAYV, and influenza A virus infection as efficiently as wild-type IFITM3 Antivirally active IFITM variants displayed reduced cell surface levels in CHIKV-infected cells involving a posttranscriptional process mediated by one or several nonstructural protein(s) of CHIKV. Finally, IFITM3-imposed reduction of specific infectivity of nascent particles provides a rationale for the necessity of a virus-encoded counteraction strategy against this restriction factor.
    • Leader peptide exchange to produce hybrid, new-to-nature ribosomal natural products.

      Franz, Laura; Koehnke, Jesko; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (RSC, 2021-05-24)
      Ribosomal natural products contain exquisite post-translational peptide modifications that are installed by a range of pathway-specific enzymes. We present proof of principle for a Sortase A-based approach that enables peptide modification by enzymes from unrelated pathways. This allowed the one-pot synthesis of a new-to-nature, hybrid ribosomal natural product.
    • Non-Heme Monooxygenase ThoJ Catalyzes Thioholgamide β-Hydroxylation.

      Sikandar, Asfandyar; Lopatniuk, Maria; Luzhetskyy, Andriy; Koehnke, Jesko; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (American Chemical Society (ACS), 2020-10-01)
      Thioviridamide-like compounds, including thioholgamides, are ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide natural products with potent anticancer cell activity and an unprecedented structure. Very little is known about their biosynthesis, and we were intrigued by the β-hydroxy-N1, N3-dimethylhistidinium moiety found in these compounds. Here we report the construction of a heterologous host capable of producing thioholgamide with a 15-fold increased yield compared to the wild-type strain. A knockout of thoJ, encoding a predicted nonheme monooxygenase, shows that ThoJ is essential for thioholgamide β-hydroxylation. The crystal structure of ThoJ exhibits a typical mono/dioxygenase fold with conserved key active-site residues. Yet, ThoJ possesses a very large substrate binding pocket that appears suitable to receive a cyclic thioholgamide intermediate for hydroxylation. The improved production of the heterologous host will enable the dissection of the individual biosynthetic steps involved in biosynthesis of this exciting RiPP family.
    • Palstimolide A: A Complex Polyhydroxy Macrolide with Antiparasitic Activity.

      Keller, Lena; Siqueira-Neto, Jair L; Souza, Julia M; Eribez, Korina; LaMonte, Gregory M; Smith, Jennifer E; Gerwick, William H; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (MDPI, 2020-03-31)
      Marine Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) have been shown to possess an enormous potential to produce structurally diverse natural products that exhibit a broad spectrum of potent biological activities, including cytotoxic, antifungal, antiparasitic, antiviral, and antibacterial activities. Here, we report the isolation and structure determination of palstimolide A, a complex polyhydroxy macrolide with a 40-membered ring that was isolated from a tropical marine cyanobacterium collected at Palmyra Atoll. NMR-guided fractionation in combination with MS2-based molecular networking and isolation via HPLC yielded 0.7 mg of the pure compound. The small quantity isolated along with the presence of significant signal degeneracy in both the 1H and 13C-NMR spectra complicated the structure elucidation of palstimolide A. Various NMR experiments and solvent systems were employed, including the LRHSQMBC experiment that allows the detection of long-range 1H-13C correlation data across 4-, 5-, and even 6-bonds. This expanded NMR data set enabled the elucidation of the palstimolide's planar structure, which is characterized by several 1,5-disposed hydroxy groups as well as a tert-butyl group. The compound showed potent antimalarial activity with an IC50 of 223 nM as well as interesting anti-leishmanial activity with an IC50 of 4.67 µM.
    • Structure-Activity Relationship and Mode-of-Action Studies Highlight 1-(4-Biphenylylmethyl)-1H-imidazole-Derived Small Molecules as Potent CYP121 Inhibitors.

      Walter, Isabell; Adam, Sebastian; Gentilini, Maria Virginia; Kany, Andreas M; Brengel, Christian; Thomann, Andreas; Sparwasser, Tim; Köhnke, Jesko; Hartmann, Rolf W; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany.; TWINCORE, Zentrum für experimentelle und klinische Infektionsforschung GmbH,Feodor-Lynen Str. 7, 30625 Hannover, Germany. (Wiley-VCH, 2021-05-19)
      CYP121 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an essential target for the development of novel potent drugs against tuberculosis (TB). Besides known antifungal azoles, further compounds of the azole class were recently identified as CYP121 inhibitors with antimycobacterial activity. Herein, we report the screening of a similarity-oriented library based on the former hit compound, the evaluation of affinity toward CYP121, and activity against M. bovis BCG. The results enabled a comprehensive SAR study, which was extended through the synthesis of promising compounds and led to the identification of favorable features for affinity and/or activity and hit compounds with 2.7-fold improved potency. Mode of action studies show that the hit compounds inhibit substrate conversion and highlighted CYP121 as the main antimycobacterial target of our compounds. Exemplified complex crystal structures of CYP121 with three inhibitors reveal a common binding site. Engaging in both hydrophobic interactions as well as hydrogen bonding to the sixth iron ligand, our compounds block a solvent channel leading to the active site heme. Additionally, we report the first CYP inhibitors that are able to reduce the intracellular replication of M. bovis BCG in macrophages, emphasizing their potential as future drug candidates against TB.