• Desymmetrization of C -Symmetric Bis(Boronic Esters) by Zweifel Olefinations.

      Linne, Yannick; Schönwald, Axel; Weißbach, Sebastian; Kalesse, Markus; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Wiley, 2020-06-03)
      anti-Configured 1,3-dimethyl deoxypropionate motifs are important sub structures in natural products. Herein, we describe a bidirectional approach for the rapid construction of natural products featuring such motifs by using C2 -symmetrical 1,3-bis(boronic esters). As for its application in convergent syntheses it was important to establish a selective mono-Zweifel olefination we describe the scope and limitations by using different 1,3-bis(boronic esters) and nucleophiles. This protocol takes advantage of the combination of the Hoppe-Matteson-Zweifel chemistry, which was elegantly put into practice by Aggarwal et al. In order to show its applicability the total syntheses of two natural products, serricornin and (+)-invictolide, were performed.
    • A functional interplay between intein and extein sequences in protein splicing compensates for the essential block B histidine

      Friedel, Kristina; Popp, Monika A.; Matern, Julian C. J.; Gazdag, Emerich M.; Thiel, Ilka V.; Volkmann, Gerrit; Blankenfeldt, Wulf; Mootz, Henning D.; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2018-10-03)
      Inteins remove themselves from a precursor protein by protein splicing. Due to the concomitant structural changes of the host protein, this self-processing reaction has enabled many applications in protein biotechnology and chemical biology. We show that the evolved M86 mutant of the Ssp DnaB intein displays a significantly improved tolerance towards non-native amino acids at the N-terminally flanking (−1) extein position compared to the parent intein, in the form of both an artificially trans-splicing split intein and the cis-splicing mini-intein. Surprisingly, side chains with increased steric bulk compared to the native Gly(−1) residue, including D-amino acids, were found to compensate for the essential block B histidine in His73Ala mutants in the initial N–S acyl shift of the protein splicing pathway. In the case of the M86 intein, large (−1) side chains can even rescue protein splicing activity as a whole. With the comparison of three crystal structures, namely of the M86 intein as well as of its Gly(−1)Phe and Gly(−1)Phe/His73Ala mutants, our data supports a model in which the intein's active site can exert a strain by varying mechanisms on the different angles of the scissile bond at the extein–intein junction to effect a ground-state destabilization. The compensatory mechanism of the block B histidine is the first example for the direct functional role of an extein residue in protein splicing. It sheds new light on the extein–intein interplay and on possible consequences of their co-evolution as well as on the laboratory engineering of improved inteins.
    • Photocontrol of Antibacterial Activity: Shifting from UV to Red Light Activation.

      Wegener, Michael; Hansen, Mickel J; Driessen, Arnold J M; Szymanski, Wiktor; Feringa, Ben L; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017-12-13)
      The field of photopharmacology aims to introduce smart drugs that, through the incorporation of molecular photoswitches, allow for the remote spatial and temporal control of bioactivity by light. This concept could be particularly beneficial in the treatment of bacterial infections, by reducing the systemic and environmental side effects of antibiotics. A major concern in the realization of such light-responsive drugs is the wavelength of the light that is applied. Studies on the photocontrol of biologically active agents mostly rely on UV light, which is cytotoxic and poorly suited for tissue penetration. In our efforts to develop photoswitchable antibiotics, we introduce here antibacterial agents whose activity can be controlled by visible light, while getting into the therapeutic window. For that purpose, a UV-light-responsive core structure based on diaminopyrimidines with suitable antibacterial properties was identified. Subsequent modification of an azobenzene photoswitch moiety led to structures that allowed us to control their activity against Escherichia coli in both directions with light in the visible region. For the first time, full in situ photocontrol of antibacterial activity in the presence of bacteria was attained with green and violet light. Most remarkably, one of the diaminopyrimidines revealed an at least 8-fold difference in activity before and after irradiation with red light at 652 nm, showcasing the effective "activation" of a biological agent otherwise inactive within the investigated concentration range, and doing so with red light in the therapeutic window.
    • Recent Applications of the Diels-Alder Reaction in the Synthesis of Natural Products (2017-2020)

      Sara, Alexandru A.; Um-E-Farwa, Um E.Farwa; Saeed, Aamer; Kalesse, Markus; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Thieme, 2021-06-21)
      The Diels-Alder reaction has long been established as an extremely useful procedure in the toolbox of natural product chemists. It tolerates a wide spectrum of building blocks of different complexity and degrees of derivatization, and enables the formation of six-membered rings with well-defined stereochemistry. In recent years, many total syntheses of natural products have been reported that rely, at some point, on the use of a [4+2]-cycloaddition step. Among classic approaches, several modifications of the Diels-Alder reaction, such as hetero-Diels-Alder reactions, dehydro-Diels-Alder reactions and domino-Diels-Alder reactions, have been employed to extend the scope of this process in the synthesis of natural products. Our short review covers applications of the Diels-Alder reaction in natural product syntheses between 2017 and 2020, as well as selected methodologies which are inspired by, or that can be used to access natural products. 1 Introduction 2 Syntheses from 2017 3 Syntheses from 2018 4 Syntheses from 2019 5 Syntheses from 2020 6 Conclusion. © 2021 Georg Thieme Verlag. All rights reserved
    • Resolving Inflammation: Synthesis, Configurational Assignment, and Biological Evaluations of RvD1.

      Tungen, Jørn Eivind; Gerstmann, Lisa; Vik, Anders; De Matteis, Roberta; Colas, Romain Alexandre; Dalli, Jesmond; Chiang, Nan; Serhan, Charles Nicholas; Kalesse, Markus; Hansen, Trond Vidar; et al. (Wiley, 2018-12-20)
      New drugs that can resolve inflammation without immunosuppressive effects are at the medicinal chemistry frontier. Pro-resolving endogenously formed small molecules, that is, the resolvins, are excellent candidates displaying such bioactions. The first total synthesis of the specialized pro-resolving mediator RvD1n-3 DPA has been achieved using the underutilized sp3 -sp3 Negishi cross coupling reaction and an alkyne hydrosilylation-protodesilylation protocol. Biological evaluations revealed that this novel mediator displays low nanomolar pro-resolving properties and potently activates the human DRV1/GPR32 receptor. As such, this endogenous natural product is a lead compound for the development of novel immunoresolvents.
    • Synthesis of Desepoxy-Tedanolide C.

      Lücke, Daniel; Kalesse, Markus; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Wiley, 2021-04-09)
      The synthesis of desepoxy-tedanolide C was accomplished and provided experimental evidence on the configuration of tedanolide C. The reported chemical shifts and coupling constants point to a configuration different from the published structure and analogous to the structures of the other members of this family of natural products. The key step is a Kiyooka aldol protocol for the stereoselective synthesis of the tertiary alcohol flanked by three additional oxygenated carbon atoms. Furthermore, two additional aldol reactions and a Julia-Kocienski olefination were used to assemble the carbon framework.
    • Total Synthesis and Structure Revision of Halioxepine.

      Poock, Caroline; Kalesse, Markus; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Wiley, 2020-11-20)
      The first total synthesis of halioxepine is accomplished using a 1,4-addition for constructing the quaternary center at C10 and a halo etherification for the generation of the tertiary ether at C7. The correct structure of halioxepine was determined by assembling different enantiomeric building blocks and by changing the relative configuration between C10 and C15.
    • The Total Synthesis of Chondrochloren A.

      Linne, Yannick; Bonandi, Elisa; Tabet, Christopher; Geldsetzer, Jan; Kalesse, Markus; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Wiley-VCH, 2021-02-25)
      The first total synthesis of chondrochloren A is accomplished using a 1,2-metallate rearrangement addition as an alternative for the Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi reaction. This transformation also avoids the inherent challenges of this polyketide segment and provides a new, unprecedented strategy to assemble polyketidal frameworks. The formation of the Z-enamide is accomplished using a Z-selective cross coupling of the corresponding amide to a Z-vinyl bromide.
    • Tris(acetylacetonato) Iron(III): Recent Developments and Synthetic Applications

      Lübken, Dennis; Saxarra, Marius; Kalesse, Markus; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Thieme, 2018-11-27)
      Tris(acetylacetonato) iron(III) [Fe(acac)3] is an indispensable reagent in synthetic chemistry. Its applications range from hydrogen atom transfer to cross-coupling reactions and to use as a Lewis acid. Consequently, the exceptional utility of Fe(acac)3 has been demonstrated in several total syntheses. This short review summarizes the applications of Fe(acac)3 in methodology and catalysis and highlights its use for the synthesis of medicinally relevant structures and in natural product syntheses.