• 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Inhibition: Discovery of Selective and Metabolically Stable Compounds Inhibiting Both the Human Enzyme and Its Murine Ortholog.

      Gargano, Emanuele M; Allegretta, Giuseppe; Perspicace, Enrico; Carotti, Angelo; Van Koppen, Chris; Frotscher, Martin; Marchais-Oberwinkler, Sandrine; Hartmann, Rolf W; Helmholtz-Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS),Saarland 9 University, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (2015)
      Design and synthesis of a new class of inhibitors for the treatment of osteoporosis and its comparative h17β-HSD2 and m17β-HSD2 SAR study are described. 17a is the first compound to show strong inhibition of both h17β-HSD2 and m17β-HSD2, intracellular activity, metabolic stability, selectivity toward h17β-HSD1, m17β-HSD1 and estrogen receptors α and β as well as appropriate physicochemical properties for oral bioavailability. These properties make it eligible for pre-clinical animal studies, prior to human studies.
    • Metabolic stability optimization and metabolite identification of 2,5-thiophene amide 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 inhibitors.

      Gargano, Emanuele M; Perspicace, Enrico; Hanke, Nina; Carotti, Angelo; Marchais-Oberwinkler, Sandrine; Hartmann, Rolf W; Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Saarland University, Campus C2.3, D-66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (2014-11-24)
      17β-HSD2 is a promising new target for the treatment of osteoporosis. In this paper, a rational strategy to overcome the metabolic liability in the 2,5-thiophene amide class of 17β-HSD2 inhibitors is described, and the biological activity of the new inhibitors. Applying different strategies, as lowering the cLogP or modifying the structures of the molecules, compounds 27, 31 and 35 with strongly improved metabolic stability were obtained. For understanding biotransformation in the 2,5-thiophene amide class the main metabolic pathways of three properly selected compounds were elucidated.
    • Towards the evaluation in an animal disease model: Fluorinated 17β-HSD1 inhibitors showing strong activity towards both the human and the rat enzyme.

      Abdelsamie, Ahmed S; Bey, Emmanuel; Gargano, Emanuele M; van Koppen, Chris J; Empting, Martin; Frotscher, Martin; Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS), Campus C23, D-66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (2015-10-20)
      17β-Estradiol (E2), the most potent human estrogen, is known to be involved in the etiology of estrogen-dependent diseases (EDD) like breast cancer and endometriosis. 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β-HSD1) catalyses the last step of E2 biosynthesis and is thus a promising target for the treatment of EDD. The previously described bicyclic substituted hydroxyphenylmethanones (BSHs) display high inhibitory potency towards human 17β-HSD1, but marginal activity towards rodent 17β-HSD1, precluding a proof of principle study in an animal endometriosis model. The aim of this work was to perform structural optimizations in the BSHs class to enhance inhibitory activity against rodent (mouse and rat) 17β-HSD1 while maintaining activity against the human enzyme. The introduction of fluorine atoms on the benzoyl moiety resulted in compounds with the desired properties. Molecular docking and homology modeling were applied to elucidate the binding mode and interspecies differences in activity. Compound 33 is the most potent inhibitor of both human and rat 17β-HSD1 up to date (IC50 = 2 nM and 97 nM, respectively).