• Discovery of Small-Molecule Stabilizers of 14-3-3 Protein-Protein Interactions via Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry.

      Hartman, Alwin M; Elgaher, Walid A M; Hertrich, Nathalie; Andrei, Sebastian A; Ottmann, Christian; Hirsch, Anna K H; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (American Chemical Society (ACS), 2020-02-28)
      Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play an important role in numerous biological processes such as cell-cycle regulation and multiple diseases. The family of 14-3-3 proteins is an attractive target as they serve as binding partner to various proteins and are therefore capable of regulating their biological activities. Discovering small-molecule modulators, in particular stabilizers, of such complexes via traditional screening approaches is a challenging task. Herein, we pioneered the first application of dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) to a PPI target, to find modulators of 14-3-3 proteins. Evaluation of the amplified hits from the DCC experiments for their binding affinity via surface plasmon resonance (SPR), revealed that the low-micromolar (KD 15-16 μM) acylhydrazones are 14-3-3/synaptopodin PPI stabilizers. Thus, DCC appears to be ideally suited for the discovery of not only modulators but even the more elusive stabilizers of notoriously challenging PPIs.
    • Lipid-DNAs as Solubilizers of mTHPC.

      Liu, Yun; de Vries, Jan Willem; Liu, Qing; Hartman, Alwin M; Wieland, Gerhard D; Wieczorek, Sebastian; Börner, Hans G; Wiehe, Arno; Buhler, Eric; Stuart, Marc C A; et al. (2018-01-19)
      Hydrophobic drug candidates require innovative formulation agents. We designed and synthesized lipid-DNA polymers containing varying numbers of hydrophobic alkyl chains. The hydrophobicity of these amphiphiles is easily tunable by introducing a defined number of alkyl chain-modified nucleotides during standard solid-phase synthesis of DNA using an automated DNA synthesizer. We observed that the resulting self-assembled micelles solubilize the poorly water-soluble drug, meta-tetra-hydroxyphenyl-chlorin (mTHPC) used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) with high loading concentrations and loading capacities. A cell viability study showed that mTHPC-loaded micelles exhibit good biocompatibility without irradiation, and high PDT efficacy upon irradiation. Lipid-DNAs provide a novel class of drug-delivery vehicle, and hybridization of DNA offers a potentially facile route for further functionalization of the drug-delivery system with, for instance, targeting or imaging moieties.
    • Potential Dental Biofilm Inhibitors: Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry Affords Sugar-Based Molecules that Target Bacterial Glucosyltransferase.

      Hartman, Alwin M; Jumde, Varsha R; Elgaher, Walid A M; Te Poele, Evelien M; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Hirsch, Anna K H; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Wiley-VCH, 2020-06-16)
      We applied dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) to find novel ligands of the bacterial virulence factor glucosyltransferase (GTF) 180. GTFs are the major producers of extracellular polysaccharides, which are important factors in the initiation and development of cariogenic dental biofilms. Following a structure-based strategy, we designed a series of 36 glucose- and maltose-based acylhydrazones as substrate mimics. Synthesis of the required mono- and disaccharide-based aldehydes set the stage for DCC experiments. Analysis of the dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs) by UPLC-MS revealed major amplification of four compounds in the presence of GTF180. Moreover, we found that derivatives of the glucose-acceptor maltose at the C1-hydroxy group act as glucose-donors and are cleaved by GTF180. The synthesized hits display medium to low binding affinity (KD values of 0.4-10.0 mm) according to surface plasmon resonance. In addition, they were investigated for inhibitory activity in GTF-activity assays. The early-stage DCC study reveals that careful design of DCLs opens up easy access to a broad class of novel compounds that can be developed further as potential inhibitors.