• Advancing human pulmonary disease models in preclinical research: opportunities for lung-on-chips..

      Artzy-Schnirman, Arbel; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Sznitman, Josué; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Taylor&Francis, 2020-03-11)
      [No abstracr available]
    • Concepts and Core Principles of Fragment-Based Drug Design.

      Kirsch, Philine; Hartman, Alwin M; Hirsch, Anna K H; Empting, Martin; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (MDPI, 2019-11-26)
      In this review, a general introduction to fragment-based drug design and the underlying concepts is given. General considerations and methodologies ranging from library selection/construction over biophysical screening and evaluation methods to in-depth hit qualification and subsequent optimization strategies are discussed. These principles can be generally applied to most classes of drug targets. The examples given for fragment growing, merging, and linking strategies at the end of the review are set in the fields of enzyme-inhibitor design and macromolecule-macromolecule interaction inhibition. Building upon the foundation of fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) and its methodologies, we also highlight a few new trends in FBDD.
    • Non-active site mutants of HIV-1 protease influence resistance and sensitisation towards protease inhibitors.

      Bastys, Tomas; Gapsys, Vytautas; Walter, Hauke; Heger, Eva; Doncheva, Nadezhda T; Kaiser, Rolf; de Groot, Bert L; Kalinina, Olga V; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (BMC, 2020-05-19)
      Background: HIV-1 can develop resistance to antiretroviral drugs, mainly through mutations within the target regions of the drugs. In HIV-1 protease, a majority of resistance-associated mutations that develop in response to therapy with protease inhibitors are found in the protease's active site that serves also as a binding pocket for the protease inhibitors, thus directly impacting the protease-inhibitor interactions. Some resistance-associated mutations, however, are found in more distant regions, and the exact mechanisms how these mutations affect protease-inhibitor interactions are unclear. Furthermore, some of these mutations, e.g. N88S and L76V, do not only induce resistance to the currently administered drugs, but contrarily induce sensitivity towards other drugs. In this study, mutations N88S and L76V, along with three other resistance-associated mutations, M46I, I50L, and I84V, are analysed by means of molecular dynamics simulations to investigate their role in complexes of the protease with different inhibitors and in different background sequence contexts. Results: Using these simulations for alchemical calculations to estimate the effects of mutations M46I, I50L, I84V, N88S, and L76V on binding free energies shows they are in general in line with the mutations' effect on [Formula: see text] values. For the primary mutation L76V, however, the presence of a background mutation M46I in our analysis influences whether the unfavourable effect of L76V on inhibitor binding is sufficient to outweigh the accompanying reduction in catalytic activity of the protease. Finally, we show that L76V and N88S changes the hydrogen bond stability of these residues with residues D30/K45 and D30/T31/T74, respectively. Conclusions: We demonstrate that estimating the effect of both binding pocket and distant mutations on inhibitor binding free energy using alchemical calculations can reproduce their effect on the experimentally measured [Formula: see text] values. We show that distant site mutations L76V and N88S affect the hydrogen bond network in the protease's active site, which offers an explanation for the indirect effect of these mutations on inhibitor binding. This work thus provides valuable insights on interplay between primary and background mutations and mechanisms how they affect inhibitor binding.
    • Novel 15-Lipoxygenase-1 Inhibitor Protects Macrophages from Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cytotoxicity.

      Guo, Hao; Verhoek, Iris C; Prins, Gerian G H; van der Vlag, Ramon; van der Wouden, Petra E; van Merkerk, Ronald; Quax, Wim J; Olinga, Peter; Hirsch, Anna K H; Dekker, Frank J; et al. (ACS, 2019-04-19)
      Various mechanisms for regulated cell death include the formation of oxidative mediators such as lipid peroxides and nitric oxide (NO). In this respect, 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the formation of lipid peroxides. The actions of these peroxides are interconnected with nuclear factor-κB signaling and NO production. Inhibition of 15-LOX-1 holds promise to interfere with regulated cell death in inflammatory conditions. In this study, a novel potent 15-LOX-1 inhibitor, 9c (i472), was developed and structure-activity relationships were explored. In vitro, this inhibitor protected cells from lipopolysaccharide-induced cell death, inhibiting NO formation and lipid peroxidation. Thus, we provide a novel 15-LOX-1 inhibitor that inhibits cellular NO production and lipid peroxidation, which set the stage for further exploration of these mechanisms.
    • Optimized Inhibitors of MDM2 via an Attempted Protein-Templated Reductive Amination.

      van der Vlag, Ramon; Yagiz Unver, M; Felicetti, Tommaso; Twarda-Clapa, Aleksandra; Kassim, Fatima; Ermis, Cagdas; Neochoritis, Constantinos G; Musielak, Bogdan; Labuzek, Beata; Dömling, Alexander; et al. (Wiley, 2019-12-12)
      Innovative and efficient hit-identification techniques are required to accelerate drug discovery. Protein-templated fragment ligations represent a promising strategy in early drug discovery, enabling the target to assemble and select its binders from a pool of building blocks. Development of new protein-templated reactions to access a larger structural diversity and expansion of the variety of targets to demonstrate the scope of the technique are of prime interest for medicinal chemists. Herein, we present our attempts to use a protein-templated reductive amination to target protein-protein interactions (PPIs), a challenging class of drug targets. We address a flexible pocket, which is difficult to achieve by structure-based drug design. After careful analysis we did not find one of the possible products in the kinetic target-guided synthesis (KTGS) approach, however subsequent synthesis and biochemical evaluation of each library member demonstrated that all the obtained molecules inhibit MDM2. The most potent library member (Ki =0.095 μm) identified is almost as active as Nutlin-3, a potent inhibitor of the p53-MDM2 PPI.
    • Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 2-Substituted ­Analogues of (-)-Pentenomycin i

      Zisopoulou, Stavroula A.; Bousis, Spyridon; Haupenthal, Jörg; Herrmann, Jennifer; Müller, Rolf; Hirsch, Anna K.H.; Komiotis, Dimitri; Gallos, John K.; Stathakis, Christos I.; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. (Thieme, 2020-03-17)
      A library of novel 2-substituted derivatives of the antibiotic natural product pentenomycin I is presented. The new collection of analogues is divided in two main classes, 2-alkynyl- and 2-aryl- derivatives, which are accessed by the appropriate type of palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of the 2-iodo-protected pentenomycin I with suitable nucleophiles. The new derivatives were tested for their activity against certain types of bacteria and one of them, compound 8h, was found to exhibit significant inhibitory activity against several Gram-positive bacteria but also displayed cytotoxic activity against eukaryotic cell lines.