• Inverting Small Molecule-Protein Recognition by the Fluorine Gauche Effect: Selectivity Regulated by Multiple H→F Bioisosterism.

      Bentler, Patrick; Bergander, Klaus; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Mück-Lichtenfeld, Christian; Jumde, Ravindra P; Hirsch, Anna K H; Gilmour, Ryan; HIPS, Helmholtz-Institut für Pharmazeutische Forschung Saarland, Universitätscampus E8.1 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany (Wiley-VCH, 2019-08-05)
      Fluorinated motifs have a venerable history in drug discovery, but as C(sp3 )-F-rich 3D scaffolds appear with increasing frequency, the effect of multiple bioisosteric changes on molecular recognition requires elucidation. Herein we demonstrate that installation of a 1,3,5-stereotriad, in the substrate for a commonly used lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens does not inhibit recognition, but inverts stereoselectivity. This provides facile access to optically active, stereochemically well-defined organofluorine compounds (up to 98 % ee). Whilst orthogonal recognition is observed with fluorine, the trend does not hold for the corresponding chlorinated substrates or mixed halogens. This phenomenon can be placed on a structural basis by considering the stereoelectronic gauche effect inherent to F-C-C-X systems (σ→σ*). Docking reveals that this change in selectivity (H versus F) with a common lipase results from inversion in the orientation of the bound substrate being processed as a consequence of conformation. This contrasts with the stereochemical interpretation of the biogenetic isoprene rule, whereby product divergence from a common starting material is also a consequence of conformation, albeit enforced by two discrete enzymes.