• A mathematical model of the impact of insulin secretion dynamics on selective hepatic insulin resistance.

      Zhao, Gang; Wirth, Dagmar; Schmitz, Ingo; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Braunschweiger Zentrum für Systembiologie, Rebenring 56, 38106, Germany. (2017-11-08)
      Physiological insulin secretion exhibits various temporal patterns, the dysregulation of which is involved in diabetes development. We analyzed the impact of first-phase and pulsatile insulin release on glucose and lipid control with various hepatic insulin signaling networks. The mathematical model suggests that atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) undergoes a bistable switch-on and switch-off, under the control of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2). The activation of IRS1 and IRS2 is temporally separated due to the inhibition of IRS1 by aPKC. The model further shows that the timing of aPKC switch-off is delayed by reduced first-phase insulin and reduced amplitude of insulin pulses. Based on these findings, we propose a sequential model of postprandial hepatic control of glucose and lipid by insulin, according to which delayed aPKC switch-off contributes to selective hepatic insulin resistance, which is a long-standing paradox in the field.
    • Nitric oxide controls proliferation of Leishmania major by inhibiting the recruitment of permissive host cells.

      Formaglio, Pauline; Alabdullah, Mohamad; Siokis, Anastasios; Handschuh, Juliane; Sauerland, Ina; Fu, Yan; Krone, Anna; Gintschel, Patricia; Stettin, Juliane; Heyde, Sandrina; et al. (Cell Press, 2021-10-15)
      Nitric oxide (NO) is an important antimicrobial effector but also prevents unnecessary tissue damage by shutting down the recruitment of monocyte-derived phagocytes. Intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania major can hijack these cells as a niche for replication. Thus, NO might exert containment by restricting the availability of the cellular niche required for efficient pathogen proliferation. However, such indirect modes of action remain to be established. By combining mathematical modeling with intravital 2-photon biosensors of pathogen viability and proliferation, we show that low L. major proliferation results not from direct NO impact on the pathogen but from reduced availability of proliferation-permissive host cells. Although inhibiting NO production increases recruitment of these cells, and thus pathogen proliferation, blocking cell recruitment uncouples the NO effect from pathogen proliferation. Therefore, NO fulfills two distinct functions for L. major containment: permitting direct killing and restricting the supply of proliferation-permissive host cells.
    • Postprandial Metabolic Effects of Fiber Mixes Revealed by in vivo Stable Isotope Labeling in Humans.

      Schlicker, Lisa; Boers, Hanny M; Dudek, Christian-Alexander; Zhao, Gang; Barua, Arnab; Trezzi, Jean-Pierre; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Jacobs, Doris M; Hiller, Karsten; BRICS, Braunschweiger Zentrum für Systembiologie, Rebenring 56,38106 Braunschweig, Germany. (MPDI, 2019-05-07)
      Food supplementation with a fiber mix of guar gum and chickpea flour represents a promising approach to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by attenuating postprandial glycemia. To investigate the effects on postprandial metabolic fluxes of glucose-derived metabolites in response to this fiber mix, a randomized, cross-over study was designed. Twelve healthy, male subjects consumed three different flatbreads either supplemented with 2% guar gum or 4% guar gum and 15% chickpea flour or without supplementation (control). The flatbreads were enriched with ~2% of 13C-labeled wheat flour. Blood was collected at 16 intervals over a period of 360 min after bread intake and plasma samples were analyzed by GC-MS based metabolite profiling combined with stable isotope-assisted metabolomics. Although metabolite levels of the downstream metabolites of glucose, specifically lactate and alanine, were not altered in response to the fiber mix, supplementation of 4% guar gum was shown to significantly delay and reduce the exogenous formation of these metabolites. Metabolic modeling and computation of appearance rates revealed that the effects induced by the fiber mix were strongest for glucose and attenuated downstream of glucose. Further investigations to explore the potential of fiber mix supplementation to counteract the development of metabolic diseases are warranted.