• In Vivo Conditions Enable IFNAR-Independent Type I Interferon Production by Peritoneal CD11b+ Cells upon Thogoto Virus Infection.

      Kochs, Georg; Anzaghe, Martina; Kronhart, Stefanie; Wagner, Valentina; Gogesch, Patricia; Scheu, Stefanie; Häussler, Susanne; Waibler, Zoe; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover: Hannover, Niedersachsen, Germany. (2016-10-15)
      Type I interferons (IFNs) crucially contribute to host survival upon viral infections. Robust expression of type I IFNs (IFN-α/β) and induction of an antiviral state critically depend on amplification of the IFN signal via the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR). A small amount of type I IFN produced early upon virus infection binds the IFNAR and activates a self-enhancing positive feedback loop, resulting in induction of large, protective amounts of IFN-α. Unexpectedly, we found robust, systemic IFN-α expression upon infection of IFNAR knockout mice with the orthomyxovirus Thogoto virus (THOV). The IFNAR-independent IFN-α production required in vivo conditions and was not achieved during in vitro infection. Using replication-incompetent THOV-derived virus-like particles, we demonstrate that IFNAR-independent type I IFN induction depends on viral polymerase activity but is largely independent of viral replication. To discover the cell type responsible for this effect, we used type I IFN reporter mice and identified CD11b(+) F4/80(+) myeloid cells within the peritoneal cavity of infected animals as the main source of IFNAR-independent type I IFN, corresponding to the particular tropism of THOV for this cell type.