• Intranasal vaccination with an adjuvanted polyphosphazenes nanoparticle-based vaccine formulation stimulates protective immune responses in mice.

      Schulze, Kai; Ebensen, Thomas; Babiuk, Lorne A; Gerdts, Volker; Guzman, Carlos A.; Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr.7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2017-06-01)
      The most promising strategy to sustainably prevent infectious diseases is vaccination. However, emerging as well as re-emerging diseases still constitute a considerable threat. Furthermore, lack of compliance and logistic constrains often result in the failure of vaccination campaigns. To overcome these hurdles, novel vaccination strategies need to be developed, which fulfill maximal safety requirements, show maximal efficiency and are easy to administer. Mucosal vaccines constitute promising non-invasive approaches able to match these demands. Here we demonstrate that nanoparticle (polyphosphazenes)-based vaccine formulations including c-di-AMP as adjuvant, cationic innate defense regulator peptides (IDR) and ovalbumin (OVA) as model antigen were able to stimulate strong humoral and cellular immune responses, which conferred protection against the OVA expressing influenza strain A/WSN/OVAI (H1N1). The presented results confirm the potency of nanoparticle-based vaccine formulations to deliver antigens across the mucosal barrier, but also demonstrate the necessity to include adjuvants to stimulate efficient antigen-specific immune responses.