• Prophylactic Multi-Subunit Vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis In Vivo Evaluation in Mice.

      Lanfermann, Christian; Wintgens, Sebastian; Ebensen, Thomas; Kohn, Martin; Laudeley, Robert; Schulze, Kai; Rheinheimer, Claudia; Hegemann, Johannes H; Guzman, Carlos Alberto; Klos, Andreas; et al. (MDPI, 2021-06-06)
      Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequent sexually-transmitted disease-causing bacterium. Urogenital serovars of this intracellular pathogen lead to urethritis and cervicitis. Ascending infections result in pelvic inflammatory disease, salpingitis, and oophoritis. One of 200 urogenital infections leads to tubal infertility. Serovars A-C cause trachoma with visual impairment. There is an urgent need for a vaccine. We characterized a new five-component subunit vaccine in a mouse vaccination-lung challenge infection model. Four recombinant Pmp family-members and Ctad1 from C. trachomatis serovar E, all of which participate in adhesion and binding of chlamydial elementary bodies to host cells, were combined with the mucosal adjuvant cyclic-di-adenosine monophosphate. Intranasal application led to a high degree of cross-serovar protection against urogenital and ocular strains of C. trachomatis, which lasted at least five months. Critical evaluated parameters were body weight, clinical score, chlamydial load, a granulocyte marker and the cytokines IFN-γ/TNF-α in lung homogenate. Vaccine antigen-specific antibodies and a mixed Th1/Th2/Th17 T cell response with multi-functional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells correlate with protection. However, serum-transfer did not protect the recipients suggesting that circulating antibodies play only a minor role. In the long run, our new vaccine might help to prevent the feared consequences of human C. trachomatis infections.