• Development and characterization of attenuated metabolic mutants of Bordetella bronchiseptica for applications in vaccinology.

      Yevsa, Tetyana; Ebensen, Thomas; Fuchs, Barbara; Zygmunt, Beata; Libanova, Rimma; Gross, Roy; Schulze, Kai; Guzmán, Carlos A; Department of Vaccinology and Applied Microbiology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2013-01)
      Bordetella bronchiseptica is an important pathogen causing a number of veterinary respiratory syndromes in agriculturally important and food-producing confinement-reared animals, resulting in great economic losses annually amounting to billions of euros worldwide. Currently available live vaccines are incompletely satisfactory in terms of efficacy and safety. An efficient vaccine for livestock animals would allow reducing the application of antibiotics, thereby preventing the massive release of pharmaceuticals into the environment. Here, we describe two new potential vaccine strains based on the BB7865 strain. Two independent attenuating mutations were incorporated by homologous recombination in order to make negligible the risk of recombination and subsequent reversion to the virulent phenotype. The mutations are critical for bacterial metabolism, resistance to oxidative stress, intracellular survival and in vivo persistence. The resulting double mutants BB7865 risA aroA and BB7865 risA dapE were characterized as promising vaccine candidates, which are able to confer protection against colonization of the lower respiratory tract after sublethal challenge with the wild-type strain.
    • Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of Vibrio cholerae cells entering the viable but non-culturable state and starvation in response to cold shock.

      González-Escalona, Narjol; Fey, Axel; Höfle, Manfred G; Espejo, Romilio T; A Guzmán, Carlos; Vaccine Research Group, Division of Microbiology, GBF-German Research Centre for Biotechnology, Braunschweig, Germany. (2006-04)
      We performed a comparative analysis of the Vibrio cholerae strain El Tor 3083 entering the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state and starvation after incubation in artificial seawater (ASW) at 4 and 15 degrees C respectively. To this end, we determined bacterial culturability and membrane integrity, as well as the cellular levels of 16S rRNA and mRNA for the tuf, rpoS and relA genes, which were assessed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR). Bacterial cells entering the VBNC state showed a 154, 5.1 x 10(3), 24- and 23-fold reduction in the number of copies of 16S rRNA and mRNA for tuf, rpoS and relA, in comparison to exponentially growing cells. The differences were less striking between cells in the VBNC and starvation states. The mRNA for relA was selectively increased in VBNC cells (3.2-folds), whereas a 3.9-fold reduction was observed for 16S rRNA. The obtained results confirmed that key activities of the cellular metabolism (i.e. tuf representing protein synthesis, and relA or rpoS stress response) were still detected in bacteria entering the VBNC state and starvation. These data suggest that the new Q-RT-PCR methodology, based on the selected RNA targets, could be successfully exploited for the identification (rRNA) of V. cholerae and assessment of its metabolic activity (tuf, rpoS, relA mRNA) in environmental samples.