• Modulation of chemokine gene expression by Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli belonging to various origins and serotypes.

      Gobert, Alain P; Coste, Alix; Guzman, Carlos A; Vareille, Marjolaine; Hindré, Thomas; de Sablet, Thibaut; Girardeau, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Christine; Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), UR454 Unité de Microbiologie, Centre de Theix, 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France. (2008-02)
      Infection with Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) may result in the development of the haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), the main cause of acute renal failure in children. While O157:H7 STEC are associated with large outbreaks of HUS, it is difficult to predict whether a non-O157:H7 isolate can be pathogenic for humans. The mucosal innate immune response plays a central role in the pathogenesis of HUS; therefore, we compared the induction of IL-8 and CCL20 in human colon epithelial cells infected with strains belonging to different serotypes, isolated from cattle or from HUS patients. No correlation was observed between strain virulence and chemokine gene expression. Rather, the genetic background of the strains seems to determine the chemokine gene expression profile. Investigating the contribution of different bacterial factors in this process, we show that the type III secretion system of O157:H7 bacteria, but not the intimate adhesion, is required to stimulate the cells. In addition, H7, H10, and H21 flagellins are potent inducers of chemokine gene expression when synthesized in large amount.
    • Replication-deficient mutant Herpes Simplex Virus-1 targets professional antigen presenting cells and induces efficient CD4+ T helper responses.

      Fiorentini, Simona; Marconi, Peggy; Avolio, Manuela; Marini, Elena; Garrafa, Emirena; Caracciolo, Sonia; Rossi, Daniele; Bozac, Alexandra; Becker, Pablo D; Gentili, Francesca; et al. (2007-07)
      Both neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T-cells are necessary to control a viral infection. However, vigorous T helper responses are essential for their elicitation and maintenance. Here we show that a recombinant replication-deficient Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-1 vector encoding the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 matrix protein p17 (T0-p17) was capable of infecting professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) in vitro and in vivo. The injection of T0-p17 in the mouse dermis generated a strong p17-specific CD4+ T helper response preceding both p17-specific humoral and effector T cell responses. Moreover, we show that T0-p17 infection did not interfere with the endogenous processing of the transgene encoded antigen, since infected APCs were able to evoke a strong recall response in vitro. Our results demonstrate that replication-deficient HSV vectors can be appealing candidates for the development of vaccines able to trigger T helper responses.
    • An SopB-mediated immune escape mechanism of Salmonella enterica can be subverted to optimize the performance of live attenuated vaccine carrier strains.

      Link, Claudia; Ebensen, Thomas; Ständner, Lothar; Déjosez, Marion; Reinhard, Elena; Rharbaoui, Faiza; Guzmán, Carlos A; Department of Vaccinology, Division of Microbiology, GBF-German Research Centre for Biotechnology, Mascheroder Weg 1, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (2006-07)
      Salmonellae have evolved several mechanisms to evade host clearance. Here, we describe the influence on bacterial immune escape of the effector protein SopB, which is translocated into the cytosol through a type III secretion system. Wild-type bacteria, as well as the sseC and aroA attenuated mutants exerted a stronger cytotoxic effect on dendritic cells (DC) than their SopB-deficient derivatives. Cells infected with the double sseC sopB, phoP sopB and aroA sopB mutants also exhibited higher expression of MHC, CD80, CD86 and CD54 molecules, and showed a stronger capacity to process and present an I-E(d)-restricted epitope from the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) to CD4+ cells from TCR-HA transgenic mice in vitro. The incorporation of an additional mutation into the sopB locus of the attenuated sseC, phoP and aroA mutants resulted in the stimulation of improved humoral and cellular immune responses following oral vaccination. The obtained results define a new potential immune escape strategy of this important pathogen, and also demonstrate that this mechanism can be subverted to optimize the immune responses elicited using Salmonella as a live vaccine carrier.