• Expression of S100A8/A9 in HaCaT keratinocytes alters the rate of cell proliferation and differentiation.

      Voss, Andreas; Bode, Günther; Sopalla, Claudia; Benedyk, Malgorzata; Varga, Georg; Böhm, Markus; Nacken, Wolfgang; Kerkhoff, Claus; Institute of Immunology, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany. (2011-01-21)
      S100A8/A9 promotes NADPH oxidase in HaCaT keratinocytes and subsequently increases NFκB activation, which plays important roles in the balance between epidermal growth and differentiation. S100A8/A9-positive HaCaT cells present with a significantly reduced rate of cell division and greater expression of two keratinocyte differentiation markers, involucrin and filaggrin, than control cells. S100A8/A9 mutants fail to enhance NFκB activation, TNFα-induced IL-8 gene expression and NFκB p65 phosphorylation, and S100A8/A9-positive cells demonstrate better cell survival in forced suspension culture than mutant cells. S100A8/A9 is induced in epithelial cells in response to stress. Therefore, S100A8/A9-mediated growth arrest could have implications for tissue remodeling and repair.
    • The human cytomegalovirus UL51 protein is essential for viral genome cleavage-packaging and interacts with the terminase subunits pUL56 and pUL89.

      Borst, Eva Maria; Kleine-Albers, Jennifer; Gabaev, Ildar; Babic, Marina; Wagner, Karen; Binz, Anne; Degenhardt, Inga; Kalesse, Markus; Jonjic, Stipan; Bauerfeind, Rudolf; et al. (2013-02)
      Cleavage of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genomes as well as their packaging into capsids is an enzymatic process mediated by viral proteins and therefore a promising target for antiviral therapy. The HCMV proteins pUL56 and pUL89 form the terminase and play a central role in cleavage-packaging, but several additional viral proteins, including pUL51, had been suggested to contribute to this process, although they remain largely uncharacterized. To study the function of pUL51 in infected cells, we constructed HCMV mutants encoding epitope-tagged versions of pUL51 and used a conditionally replicating virus (HCMV-UL51-ddFKBP), in which pUL51 levels could be regulated by a synthetic ligand. In cells infected with HCMV-UL51-ddFKBP, viral DNA replication was not affected when pUL51 was knocked down. However, no unit-length genomes and no DNA-filled C capsids were found, indicating that cleavage of concatemeric HCMV DNA and genome packaging into capsids did not occur in the absence of pUL51. pUL51 was expressed mainly with late kinetics and was targeted to nuclear replication compartments, where it colocalized with pUL56 and pUL89. Upon pUL51 knockdown, pUL56 and pUL89 were no longer detectable in replication compartments, suggesting that pUL51 is needed for their correct subnuclear localization. Moreover, pUL51 was found in a complex with the terminase subunits pUL56 and pUL89. Our data provide evidence that pUL51 is crucial for HCMV genome cleavage-packaging and may represent a third component of the viral terminase complex. Interference with the interactions between the terminase subunits by antiviral drugs could be a strategy to disrupt the HCMV replication cycle.
    • Leishmania promastigotes lack phosphatidylserine but bind annexin V upon permeabilization or miltefosine treatment.

      Weingärtner, Adrien; Kemmer, Gerdi; Müller, Frederic D; Zampieri, Ricardo Andrade; Gonzaga dos Santos, Marcos; Schiller, Jürgen; Pomorski, Thomas Günther; Institute of Biology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany. (2012)
      The protozoan parasite Leishmania is an intracellular pathogen infecting and replicating inside vertebrate host macrophages. A recent model suggests that promastigote and amastigote forms of the parasite mimic mammalian apoptotic cells by exposing phosphatidylserine (PS) at the cell surface to trigger their phagocytic uptake into host macrophages. PS presentation at the cell surface is typically analyzed using fluorescence-labeled annexin V. Here we show that Leishmania promastigotes can be stained by fluorescence-labeled annexin V upon permeabilization or miltefosine treatment. However, combined lipid analysis by thin-layer chromatography, mass spectrometry and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy revealed that Leishmania promastigotes lack any detectable amount of PS. Instead, we identified several other phospholipid classes such phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylethanolamine; phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol as candidate lipids enabling annexin V staining.