• GeneReporter--sequence-based document retrieval and annotation.

      Bartsch, Annekathrin; Bunk, Boyke; Haddad, Isam; Klein, Johannes; Münch, Richard; Johl, Thorsten; Kärst, Uwe; Jänsch, Lothar; Jahn, Dieter; Retter, Ida; et al. (2011-04-01)
      GeneReporter is a web tool that reports functional information and relevant literature on a protein-coding sequence of interest. Its purpose is to support both manual genome annotation and document retrieval. PubMed references corresponding to a sequence are detected by the extraction of query words from UniProt entries of homologous sequences. Data on protein families, domains, potential cofactors, structure, function, cellular localization, metabolic contribution and corresponding DNA binding sites complement the information on a given gene product of interest.
    • Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester cyclase from Rhodobacter capsulatus: radical SAM-dependent synthesis of the isocyclic ring of bacteriochlorophylls.

      Wiesselmann, Milan; Hebecker, Stefanie; Borrero-de Acuña, José M; NIMTZ, MANFRED; Bollivar, David; Jänsch, Lothar; Moser, Jürgen; Jahn, Dieter; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Portland Press, 2020-11-19)
      During bacteriochlorophyll a biosynthesis, the oxygen-independent conversion of Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (Mg-PME) to protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) is catalyzed by the anaerobic Mg-PME cyclase termed BchE. Bioinformatics analyses in combination with pigment studies of cobalamin-requiring Rhodobacter capsulatus mutants indicated an unusual radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and cobalamin-dependent BchE catalysis. However, in vitro biosynthesis of the isocyclic ring moiety of bacteriochlorophyll using purified recombinant BchE has never been demonstrated. We established a spectroscopic in vitro activity assay which was subsequently validated by HPLC analyses and H218O isotope label transfer onto the carbonyl-group (C-131-oxo) of the isocyclic ring of Pchlide. The reaction product was further converted to chlorophyllide in the presence of light-dependent Pchlide reductase. BchE activity was stimulated by increasing concentrations of NADPH or SAM, and inhibited by S-adenosylhomocysteine. Subcellular fractionation experiments revealed that membrane-localized BchE requires an additional, heat-sensitive cytosolic component for activity. BchE catalysis was not sustained in chimeric experiments when a cytosolic extract from E. coli was used as a substitute. Size-fractionation of the soluble R. capsulatus fraction indicated that enzymatic activity relies on a specific component with an estimated molecular mass between 3 and 10 kDa. A structure guided site-directed mutagenesis approach was performed on the basis of a three-dimensional homology model of BchE. A newly established in vivo complementation assay was used to investigate 24 BchE mutant proteins. Potential ligands of the [4Fe-4S] cluster (Cys204, Cys208, Cys211), of SAM (Phe210, Glu308 and Lys320) and of the proposed cobalamin cofactor (Asp248, Glu249, Leu29, Thr71, Val97) were identified.
    • Pleiotropic Cyclophilin PpiB Controls Cysteine-Tolerance, Toxin Production, the Central Metabolism and Multiple Stress Responses.

      Ünal, Can Murat; Karagöz, Mustafa Safa; Berges, Mareike; Priebe, Christina; Borrero de Acuña, José Manuel; Wissing, Josef; Jänsch, Lothar; Jahn, Dieter; Steinert, Michael; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Frontiers, 2019-01-01)
      The Gram-positive pathogen Clostridioides difficile is the main bacterial agent of nosocomial antibiotic associated diarrhea. Bacterial peptidyl-prolyl-cis/trans-isomerases (PPIases) are well established modulators of virulence that influence the outcome of human pathologies during infections. Here, we present the first interactomic network of the sole cyclophilin-type PPIase of C. difficile (CdPpiB) and show that it has diverse interaction partners including major enzymes of the amino acid-dependent energy (LdhA, EtfAB, Had, Acd) and the glucose-derived (Fba, GapA, Pfo, Pyk, Pyc) central metabolism. Proteins of the general (UspA), oxidative (Rbr1,2,3, Dsr), alkaline (YloU, YphY) and cold shock (CspB) response were found bound to CdPpiB. The transcriptional (Lrp), translational (InfC, RFF) and folding (GroS, DnaK) control proteins were also found attached. For a crucial enzyme of cysteine metabolism, O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (CysK), the global transcription regulator Lrp and the flagellar subunit FliC, these interactions were independently confirmed using a bacterial two hybrid system. The active site residues F50, F109, and F110 of CdPpiB were shown to be important for the interaction with the residue P87 of Lrp. CysK activity after heat denaturation was restored by interaction with CdPpiB. In accordance, tolerance toward cell wall stress caused by the exposure to amoxicillin was reduced. In the absence of CdPpiB, C. difficile was more susceptible toward L-cysteine. At the same time, the cysteine-mediated suppression of toxin production ceased resulting in higher cytotoxicity. In summary, the cyclophilin-type PPIase of C. difficile (CdPpiB) coordinates major cellular processes via its interaction with major regulators of transcription, translation, protein folding, stress response and the central metabolism.
    • A Point Mutation in the Transcriptional Repressor PerR Results in a Constitutive Oxidative Stress Response in Clostridioides difficile 630Δ.erm

      Troitzsch, Daniel; Zhang, Hao; Dittmann, Silvia; Düsterhöft, Dorothee; Möller, Timon Alexander; Michel, Annika-Marisa; Jänsch, Lothar; Riedel, Katharina; Borrero-de Acuña, José Manuel; Jahn, Dieter; et al. (ASM, 2021-03-03)
      The human pathogen Clostridioides difficile has evolved into the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea. The bacterium is capable of spore formation, which even allows survival of antibiotic treatment. Although C. difficile features an anaerobic lifestyle, we determined a remarkably high oxygen tolerance of the laboratory reference strain 630Δerm A mutation of a single nucleotide (single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP]) in the DNA sequence (A to G) of the gene encoding the regulatory protein PerR results in an amino acid substitution (Thr to Ala) in one of the helices of the helix-turn-helix DNA binding domain of this transcriptional repressor in C. difficile 630Δerm PerR is a sensor protein for hydrogen peroxide and controls the expression of genes involved in the oxidative stress response. We show that PerR of C. difficile 630Δerm has lost its ability to bind the promoter region of PerR-controlled genes. This results in a constitutive derepression of genes encoding oxidative stress proteins such as a rubrerythrin (rbr1) whose mRNA abundance under anaerobic conditions was increased by a factor of about 7 compared to its parental strain C. difficile 630. Rubrerythrin repression in strain 630Δerm could be restored by the introduction of PerR from strain 630. The permanent oxidative stress response of C. difficile 630Δerm observed here should be considered in physiological and pathophysiological investigations based on this widely used model strain.IMPORTANCE The intestinal pathogen Clostridioides difficile is one of the major challenges in medical facilities nowadays. In order to better combat the bacterium, detailed knowledge of its physiology is mandatory. C. difficile strain 630Δerm was generated in a laboratory from the patient-isolated strain C. difficile 630 and represents a reference strain for many researchers in the field, serving as the basis for the construction of insertional gene knockout mutants. In our work, we demonstrate that this strain is characterized by an uncontrolled oxidative stress response as a result of a single-base-pair substitution in the sequence of a transcriptional regulator. C. difficile researchers working with model strain 630Δerm should be aware of this permanent stress response.
    • Regulatory and metabolic networks for the adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms to urinary tract-like conditions.

      Tielen, Petra; Rosin, Nathalie; Meyer, Ann-Kathrin; Dohnt, Katrin; Haddad, Isam; Jänsch, Lothar; Klein, Johannes; Narten, Maike; Pommerenke, Claudia; Scheer, Maurice; et al. (2013)
      Biofilms of the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa are one of the major causes of complicated urinary tract infections with detrimental outcome. To develop novel therapeutic strategies the molecular adaption strategies of P. aeruginosa biofilms to the conditions of the urinary tract were investigated thoroughly at the systems level using transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and enzyme activity analyses. For this purpose biofilms were grown anaerobically in artificial urine medium (AUM). Obtained data were integrated bioinformatically into gene regulatory and metabolic networks. The dominating response at the transcriptome and proteome level was the adaptation to iron limitation via the broad Fur regulon including 19 sigma factors and up to 80 regulated target genes or operons. In agreement, reduction of the iron cofactor-dependent nitrate respiratory metabolism was detected. An adaptation of the central metabolism to lactate, citrate and amino acid as carbon sources with the induction of the glyoxylate bypass was observed, while other components of AUM like urea and creatinine were not used. Amino acid utilization pathways were found induced, while fatty acid biosynthesis was reduced. The high amounts of phosphate found in AUM explain the reduction of phosphate assimilation systems. Increased quorum sensing activity with the parallel reduction of chemotaxis and flagellum assembly underscored the importance of the biofilm life style. However, reduced formation of the extracellular polysaccharide alginate, typical for P. aeruginosa biofilms in lungs, indicated a different biofilm type for urinary tract infections. Furthermore, the obtained quorum sensing response results in an increased production of virulence factors like the extracellular lipase LipA and protease LasB and AprA explaining the harmful cause of these infections.