• Identification of persulfide-binding and disulfide-forming cysteine residues in the NifS-like domain of the molybdenum cofactor sulfurase ABA3 by cysteine-scanning mutagenesis.

      Lehrke, Markus; Rump, Steffen; Heidenreich, Torsten; Wissing, Josef; Mendel, Ralf R; Bittner, Florian; Department of Plant Biology, Braunschweig University of Technology, Humboldtstrasse 1, 38023 Braunschweig, Germany. (2012-02-01)
      The Moco (molybdenum cofactor) sulfurase ABA3 from Arabidopsis thaliana catalyses the sulfuration of the Moco of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase, which represents the final activation step of these enzymes. ABA3 consists of an N-terminal NifS-like domain that exhibits L-cysteine desulfurase activity and a C-terminal domain that binds sulfurated Moco. The strictly conserved Cys430 in the NifS-like domain binds a persulfide intermediate, which is abstracted from the substrate L-cysteine and finally needs to be transferred to the Moco of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase. In addition to Cys⁴³⁰, another eight cysteine residues are located in the NifS-like domain, with two of them being highly conserved among Moco sulfurase proteins and, at the same time, being in close proximity to Cys⁴³⁰. By determination of the number of surface-exposed cysteine residues and the number of persulfide-binding cysteine residues in combination with the sequential substitution of each of the nine cysteine residues, a second persulfide-binding cysteine residue, Cys²⁰⁶, was identified. Furthermore, the active-site Cys⁴³⁰ was found to be located on top of a loop structure, formed by the two flanking residues Cys⁴²⁸ and Cys⁴³⁵, which are likely to form an intramolecular disulfide bridge. These findings are confirmed by a structural model of the NifS-like domain, which indicates that Cys⁴²⁸ and Cys⁴³⁵ are within disulfide bond distance and that a persulfide transfer from Cys⁴³⁰ to Cys²⁰⁶ is indeed possible.
    • Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester cyclase from Rhodobacter capsulatus: radical SAM-dependent synthesis of the isocyclic ring of bacteriochlorophylls.

      Wiesselmann, Milan; Hebecker, Stefanie; Borrero-de Acuña, José M; NIMTZ, MANFRED; Bollivar, David; Jänsch, Lothar; Moser, Jürgen; Jahn, Dieter; HZI,Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH, Inhoffenstr. 7,38124 Braunschweig, Germany. (Portland Press, 2020-11-19)
      During bacteriochlorophyll a biosynthesis, the oxygen-independent conversion of Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (Mg-PME) to protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) is catalyzed by the anaerobic Mg-PME cyclase termed BchE. Bioinformatics analyses in combination with pigment studies of cobalamin-requiring Rhodobacter capsulatus mutants indicated an unusual radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and cobalamin-dependent BchE catalysis. However, in vitro biosynthesis of the isocyclic ring moiety of bacteriochlorophyll using purified recombinant BchE has never been demonstrated. We established a spectroscopic in vitro activity assay which was subsequently validated by HPLC analyses and H218O isotope label transfer onto the carbonyl-group (C-131-oxo) of the isocyclic ring of Pchlide. The reaction product was further converted to chlorophyllide in the presence of light-dependent Pchlide reductase. BchE activity was stimulated by increasing concentrations of NADPH or SAM, and inhibited by S-adenosylhomocysteine. Subcellular fractionation experiments revealed that membrane-localized BchE requires an additional, heat-sensitive cytosolic component for activity. BchE catalysis was not sustained in chimeric experiments when a cytosolic extract from E. coli was used as a substitute. Size-fractionation of the soluble R. capsulatus fraction indicated that enzymatic activity relies on a specific component with an estimated molecular mass between 3 and 10 kDa. A structure guided site-directed mutagenesis approach was performed on the basis of a three-dimensional homology model of BchE. A newly established in vivo complementation assay was used to investigate 24 BchE mutant proteins. Potential ligands of the [4Fe-4S] cluster (Cys204, Cys208, Cys211), of SAM (Phe210, Glu308 and Lys320) and of the proposed cobalamin cofactor (Asp248, Glu249, Leu29, Thr71, Val97) were identified.