• Elucidation of the dual role of Mycobacterial MoeZR in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis and cysteine biosynthesis.

      Voss, Martin; Nimtz, Manfred; Leimkühler, Silke; Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany. (2011)
      The pathway of molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis has been studied in detail by using proteins from Mycobacterium species, which contain several homologs associated with the first steps of Moco biosynthesis. While all Mycobacteria species contain a MoeZR, only some strains have acquired an additional homolog, MoeBR, by horizontal gene transfer. The role of MoeBR and MoeZR was studied in detail for the interaction with the two MoaD-homologs involved in Moco biosynthesis, MoaD1 and MoaD2, in addition to the CysO protein involved in cysteine biosynthesis. We show that both proteins have a role in Moco biosynthesis, while only MoeZR, but not MoeBR, has an additional role in cysteine biosynthesis. MoeZR and MoeBR were able to complement an E. coli moeB mutant strain, but only in conjunction with the Mycobacterial MoaD1 or MoaD2 proteins. Both proteins were able to sulfurate MoaD1 and MoaD2 in vivo, while only MoeZR additionally transferred the sulfur to CysO. Our in vivo studies show that Mycobacteria have acquired several homologs to maintain Moco biosynthesis. MoeZR has a dual role in Moco- and cysteine biosynthesis and is involved in the sulfuration of MoaD and CysO, whereas MoeBR only has a role in Moco biosynthesis, which is not an essential function for Mycobacteria.
    • Identification of persulfide-binding and disulfide-forming cysteine residues in the NifS-like domain of the molybdenum cofactor sulfurase ABA3 by cysteine-scanning mutagenesis.

      Lehrke, Markus; Rump, Steffen; Heidenreich, Torsten; Wissing, Josef; Mendel, Ralf R; Bittner, Florian; Department of Plant Biology, Braunschweig University of Technology, Humboldtstrasse 1, 38023 Braunschweig, Germany. (2012-02-01)
      The Moco (molybdenum cofactor) sulfurase ABA3 from Arabidopsis thaliana catalyses the sulfuration of the Moco of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase, which represents the final activation step of these enzymes. ABA3 consists of an N-terminal NifS-like domain that exhibits L-cysteine desulfurase activity and a C-terminal domain that binds sulfurated Moco. The strictly conserved Cys430 in the NifS-like domain binds a persulfide intermediate, which is abstracted from the substrate L-cysteine and finally needs to be transferred to the Moco of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase. In addition to Cys⁴³⁰, another eight cysteine residues are located in the NifS-like domain, with two of them being highly conserved among Moco sulfurase proteins and, at the same time, being in close proximity to Cys⁴³⁰. By determination of the number of surface-exposed cysteine residues and the number of persulfide-binding cysteine residues in combination with the sequential substitution of each of the nine cysteine residues, a second persulfide-binding cysteine residue, Cys²⁰⁶, was identified. Furthermore, the active-site Cys⁴³⁰ was found to be located on top of a loop structure, formed by the two flanking residues Cys⁴²⁸ and Cys⁴³⁵, which are likely to form an intramolecular disulfide bridge. These findings are confirmed by a structural model of the NifS-like domain, which indicates that Cys⁴²⁸ and Cys⁴³⁵ are within disulfide bond distance and that a persulfide transfer from Cys⁴³⁰ to Cys²⁰⁶ is indeed possible.