• Carbonic anhydrase subunits form a matrix-exposed domain attached to the membrane arm of mitochondrial complex I in plants.

      Sunderhaus, Stephanie; Dudkina, Natalya V; Jänsch, Lothar; Klodmann, Jennifer; Heinemeyer, Jesco; Perales, Mariano; Zabaleta, Eduardo; Boekema, Egbert J; Braun, Hans-Peter; Institut für Angewandte Genetik, Universität Hannover, Herrenhäuser Strasse 2, D-30419 Hannover, Germany. (2006-03-10)
      Complex I of Arabidopsis includes five structurally related subunits representing gamma-type carbonic anhydrases termed CA1, CA2, CA3, CAL1, and CAL2. The position of these subunits within complex I was investigated. Direct analysis of isolated subcomplexes of complex I by liquid chromatography linked to tandem mass spectrometry allowed the assignment of the CA subunits to the membrane arm of complex I. Carbonate extraction experiments revealed that CA2 is an integral membrane protein that is protected upon protease treatment of isolated mitoplasts, indicating a location on the matrix-exposed side of the complex. A structural characterization by single particle electron microscopy of complex I from the green alga Polytomella and a previous analysis from Arabidopsis indicate a plant-specific spherical extra-domain of about 60 A in diameter, which is attached to the central part of the membrane arm of complex I on its matrix face. This spherical domain is proposed to contain a heterotrimer of three CA subunits, which are anchored with their C termini to the hydrophobic arm of complex I. Functional implications of the complex I-integrated CA subunits are discussed.
    • A structural investigation of complex I and I+III2 supercomplex from Zea mays at 11-13 A resolution: assignment of the carbonic anhydrase domain and evidence for structural heterogeneity within complex I.

      Peters, Katrin; Dudkina, Natalya V; Jänsch, Lothar; Braun, Hans-Peter; Boekema, Egbert J; Institute for Plant Genetics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, D-30419 Hannover, Germany. (2008-01)
      The projection structures of complex I and the I+III2 supercomplex from the C4 plant Zea mays were determined by electron microscopy and single particle image analysis to a resolution of up to 11 A. Maize complex I has a typical L-shape. Additionally, it has a large hydrophilic extra-domain attached to the centre of the membrane arm on its matrix-exposed side, which previously was described for Arabidopsis and which was reported to include carbonic anhydrase subunits. A comparison with the X-ray structure of homotrimeric gamma-carbonic anhydrase from the archaebacterium Methanosarcina thermophila indicates that this domain is also composed of a trimer. Mass spectrometry analyses allowed to identify two different carbonic anhydrase isoforms, suggesting that the gamma-carbonic anhydrase domain of maize complex I most likely is a heterotrimer. Statistical analysis indicates that the maize complex I structure is heterogeneous: a less-abundant "type II" particle has a 15 A shorter membrane arm and an additional small protrusion on the intermembrane-side of the membrane arm if compared to the more abundant "type I" particle. The I+III2 supercomplex was found to be a rigid structure which did not break down into subcomplexes at the interface between the hydrophilic and the hydrophobic arms of complex I. The complex I moiety of the supercomplex appears to be only of "type I". This would mean that the "type II" particles are not involved in the supercomplex formation and, hence, could have a different physiological role.